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徐成彬 | 日本PFI模式的应用特点及借鉴价值
发布日期:2020-09-30 信息来源:中咨研究 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

日本PFI模式的应用特点及借鉴价值

中咨公司研究中心  徐成彬

WOGUOPPPDEFAZHANSHIYUGAIGEKAIFANGCHUQIXIYINWAISHANGTOUZIYUJICHUSHESHILINGYU,RU1984NIANSHENZHENSHAJIAOBDIANCHANGHE1995NIANGUANGXILAIBINBDIANCHANG,CIHOUHENDUOLINGYUKAISHITUIXINGTEXUJINGYING。TEBIESHI2014NIANYILAI,PPPMOSHIXUNMENGFAZHAN,YICHENGWEIWOGUOJICHUSHESHIHEGONGGONGFUWUZHONGYAODEGONGJIFANGSHI,DANYECHUXIANZHUDUOKUNHUOYUTIAOZHAN。BIJIAOERYAN,RIBENDEPPPQIBUYU20SHIJI90NIANDAIMO,WANYUZHONGGUO,DANFAZHANWENJIAN,XIANGMUCHENGGONGLVHENGAO。JIYUZUOZHE2019NIAN6YUEZAIRIBENCANJIALEWEIQILIANGZHOUDEZHUANTIJIAOLIUHEXIANGMUXIANCHANGKAOCHA,BENWENXITONGDIYANJIULERIBENPFIMOSHIZAIXINGYEFENBU、DIYUFENBU、CAOZUOFANGSHI、FUFEIMOSHI、ZHENGFUGUANLIDENGFANGMIANDEYINGYONGTEDIAN,TONGGUODUIBIZHONGRILIANGGUOPPPMOSHIDEFAZHANCHAYI,WEIZHONGGUOPPPMOSHIJIANKANGFAZHANTIGONGJINGYANJIEJIAN。

一、日本PPP/PFI的引入及其内涵

PPPSHIYINGWENPublic-Private Partnership DESUOXIE,ZHONGWENZHIYIWEI“GONGSIHEZUO”“GONGSIHEHUOZHI”“GONGSIHUOBANGUANXI”DENG。JINNIANLAI,ZHONGGUOGUANFANGYIBANJIANGPPPTONGCHENGWEI“ZHENGFUHESHEHUIZIBENHEZUO”,QIZHONGDEDIERGE“P”SHIZHIFUHETIAOJIANDEGELEISHEHUIZIBENZHUTI,BAOKUOGUOYOU、MINYING、WAISHANG、HUNHEDENGBUTONGSUOYOUZHIQIYE。RIBENJIANGPPPXIANGMUYIBANFANYIWEI“GUANMINXIEZUOSHIYE”,PPPMOSHIZAIRIBENDEYINRUHEFAZHANYIYOUERSHIDUONIANLISHI。

ZAOZAIZHONGCENGGENKANGHONGNEIGESHIQI(1982NIAN11YUE~1987NIAN11YUE),RIBENZHENGFUJIUKAISHITUIJIN“MINHUO”TIZHIGAIGE,XIANHOUTUIDONGRIBENGUOYOUTIELU(JR)、DIANXINDIANHUAGONGSHE(NTT)HEZHUANMAIGONGSHE(JT)DENGGONGYINGJIGOUDEMINYINGHUA。20SHIJI80NIANDAIMO,RIBEN“PAOMOJINGJI”POMIE,WEILEJIEJUECAIZHENGKUNJING、TIGAOGONGGONGFUWUZHILIANG,RIBENZHENGFUZISHANGSHIJI90NIANDAIKAISHIJIADAGONGGONGTOUZI,JIEJIANYINGGUOSIRENRONGZIJIHUA(PFI,Private Finance Initiative)DEJINGYAN,JIANGGONGGONGFUWULINGYUXIANGMINJIANZIBENKAIFANG,YINRUJINGZHENGJIZHIXUANZESIYINGQIYECHENGDANGONGGONGFUWU,YITIGAOGONGGONGFUWUGONGJIDEXIAOLVYUZHILIANG,BINGCHUANGZAOGENGDUOSIYINGTOUZIDESHANGYEJIHUI。

1999NIAN,RIBENGUOHUIBANBULE《YOUXIAOYINGYONGMINJIANZIJINDENGCUJINGONGGONGSHESHIDENGZHENGBEIDEFALV》(RIWENCHENGZUO“MINJIANZIJINDENGのHUOYONGによるGONGGONGSHISHEDENGのZHENGBEIのCUJINにGUANするFALV”,JIANCHENG《PFITUIJINFA》),QIHEXINYAODIANSHIGULIMINJIANZIBENTUIDONGGONGYONGSHESHIJIANSHEYIJITIGONGGONGGONGCHANPINHEFUWU。CIHOU,《PFITUIJINFA》JINGGUOLEDUOCIXIUDING,BINGJUCICHUTAIDUOXIANGPPPXIANGGUANZHENGCE,2000NIANRIBENZHENGFUZHIDINGLEPFIXIANGMUSHISHIJIBENFANGZHEN,BINGXIANGJIFABULEGONGGONGFUWUGAIGEDEZHENGCEKUANGJIAYUTUIJINPPPSHISHI“ZHINAN”,XINGCHENGLERIBENPFIFALVZHIDUKUANGJIA,YEBIAOZHIPFIZHENGSHIYINRURIBENBINGYOUGUANFANGTUIJIN。YOUYURIBENPPPDEFALVZHIDUHESHIJIANYINGYONGZHUYAOJIYUPFIMOSHIERXINGCHENGLEJIAOWEICHENGSHUDEKUANGJIATIXI,YINCIRIBENPPPMOSHITONGCHANGYIPFIDAIZHI,BENWENYEJIANGRIBENPPPTONGCHENGWEIPFI。

RIBENNEIGEFUZHUANMENSHEZHIMINJIANZIJINCUJINGONGGONGSHESHITUIJINSHI(RIWENCHENGZUO“MINJIANZIJINDENGHUOYONGSHIYETUIJINSHI”,JIANCHENGPFITUIJINSHI)HEMINJIANZIJINCUJINGONGGONGSHESHITUIJINWEIYUANHUI(RIWENCHENGZUO“MINJIANZIJINDENGHUOYONGSHIYETUIJINWEIYUANHUI”,JIANCHENGPFITUIJINWEIYUANHUI)。PFITUIJINWEIYUANHUIMISHUCHUSHEZAIPFITUIJINSHI,PFITUIJINWEIYUANHUIYOU9MINGWEIYUANHERUOGANMINGZHUANJIAWEIYUANZUCHENG(MINJIANZIJINDENGHUOYONGSHIYETUIJINWEIYUANHUI,2018),JUNYOUNEIGEZONGLIDACHENRENMING,FUZEDIAOCHARIBENPFIDESHISHIQINGKUANGBINGXIANGNEIGEBAOGAO(PEIJUNWEI DENG,2015);PFITUIJINSHIZHUYAOFUZEYI《PFITUIJINFA》WEIJICHUDEJIBENFANGZHENZHIDING,YIJIPFITUIJINWEIYUANHUIDEYIBANRICHANGGUANLI。

2018NIANYINGGUOZHENGFUXUANBUZANTINGPFIMOSHI,RIBENRENGRANJIANCHITUIGUANGYINGYONGPFIMOSHI。RIBENNEIGEFUPFITUIJINWEIYUANHUIQIANWEIYUANZHANGDAILIGONGBENHEMINGJIAOSHOU(2018)RENWEI,DUICIJIBUYAOGUODUFANYING,YEBUYAOKANCHENG“DUIANDEHUOZAI”ERZHIZHIBULI,ZHENGQUEDEYINGGAISHIZUOWEI“TASHANZHISHI”,JIEHEBENGUOSHIJIZHUANGKUANGERLENGJINGDIYINGDUI。

二、日本PFI项目规模与流程

(一)日本PFI项目规模

ZI1999NIAN(PINGCHENG11NIAN),RIBENPFIXIANGMUSHULIANGZONGTISHANGCHUYUWENBUZENGJIADEZHUANGTAI。JINRU21SHIJI,RIBENGESHENGTINGHEDIFANGZIZHITIKAISHIDIAOZHENGDIFANGPFIFANGZHEN,WEIPFISHISHICHUANGZAOLEGENGWEIYOULIDEHUANJING,PFIJINRUWENDINGFAZHANDEJIEDUAN(LIUMIN,2018)。

RIBENPFIXIANGMUJINNIANYINIANJUN40~50GEDESUDUWENBUZENGZHANG。JIEZHI2018NIAN(PINGCHENG30NIAN)3YUE,PFIXIANGMULEIJI667GE、HETONGJINEDA58295YIRIYUAN (PFITUIJINSHI,2018);SUIHOUDEYINIANZENGJIALE73GEPFIXIANGMU,JIJIEZHI2019NIAN3YUE,PFIXIANGMULEIJI740GE、HETONGJINEDA62361YIRIYUAN(PFITUIJINSHI,2019)。GENJURIBENPPP/PFIXIEHUIDETONGJI,JIEZHI2019NIAN5YUE,PFIXIANGMUZONGSHUDA806GE。JIYUSHUJUDEQUANWEIXING、KEDEXINGHEKEBIJIAOXING,BENWENZHUYAOCAIYONGRIBENPFITUIJINSHIDESHUJU,RUTU1SUOSHI。

图1   日本1999-2018年累计PPP项目数量和合同额

(二)日本PPP项目决策与实施流程

GENJU《PFITUIJINFA》,ZAIQUEBAOTOUMINGDETONGSHI,ZHONGYANGBUWEIHEDIFANGZHENGFUJUEDINGXIANGMUSHISHIFANGSHI,BINGYIFABANLIXIANGGUANSHOUXU,XUANDINGSIYINGJIGOU(PFIXIANGMUJINGYINGZHE)。

ZAIPFIXIANGMUTOUZIJUECEJIEDUAN,GONGGONGSHESHIGUANLIBUMENZHUYAOFUZEXIANGMUJIHUADEBIANZHI,GENJUFEIYONGXIAOYIFENXI(B/C)PINGGUXIANGMUJIANSHEBIYAOXINGHESHISHIYOUXIANCIXU,BINGCESUANGONGGONGZHICHUHECAIZHENGCHENGSHOUNENGLI;TONGGUOBUDUANDIAOZHENGHEYOUHUAGONGGONGFUDAN,JUEDINGXIANGMUSHIFOUSHISHI,BINGTONGGUOWUYOUSUOZHIPINGJIAJUEDINGXIANGMUSHIFOUCAIYONGPFIMOSHI。

RUGUOXIANGMUSHIHECAIYONGPFIMOSHI,GONGGONGSHESHIGUANLIBUMENYIZHAO《PFITUIJINFA》SUOGUIDINGDECHENGXU(RUTU2),QUEDINGSHISHIFANGZHEN、XUANDINGJUTISIYINGJIGOUDENGBUZHOU,JIANGXIANGMUDESHEJI、JIANSHEHEGUANLIDENGHUANJIEDABAO,TONGGUOGONGKAIZHAOBIAOXUANDINGSIYINGJIGOUBINGZUIZHONGQIANYUE(GUOTUJIAOTONGSHENG,2018)。 

三、日本PFI模式的发展特点

RIBENDEPPPSHIJIANXINGCHENGLEDUJUTESEDE“RIBENSHIPFI”MOSHI。GENJUBUWANQUANTONGJI,RIBENPFIXIANGMUTOUZIZHANRIBENJICHUSHESHITOUZIZONGEDEBILIYUEWEI2%。RIBENPFIXIANGMUZONGTICHENGGONGLVHENGAO,ZHIYOU1%ZUOYOUDEXIANGMUYOUYUWUYOUSUOZHIJIAODIHUOZHIDAOFANGZHENGAIBIANDENGYUANYIN,ZAIQIANYUEHOUJIECHUHETONGHUOBUFENJIEYUE。RIBENPFIXIANGMUTEDIANFENXIRUXIA。

(一)行业分布

RIBENPFITUIJINSHIJIANGPFIXIANGMUFENWEIBALEI,BAOKUOJIAOYUYUWENHUA(SHEHUIJIAOYU、WENHUASHESHIDENG)、JIANKANGYUHUANJING(YILIAOSHESHI、FEIQIWUCHULI、BINYICHANGDENG)、CHENGSHIJIANSHE(DAOLU、GONGYUAN、XIASHUIDAO、GANGKOUDENG)、ZHENGFUDALOUYUSUSHE(BANGONGLOU、GONGWUYUANSUSHEDENG)、ANBAO(JINGCHA、XIAOFANG、XINGXINGSHESHIDENG)、SHENGHUOYUFUZHI(FULISHESHIDENG)、CHANYE(GUANGUANGSHESHI、NONGYEZHENXINGSHESHIDENG)、QITAZONGHESHESHIDENG。

ZAIYILUODIDE740GEPFIXIANGMUZHONG,JIAOYUYUWENHUAXIANGMUZUIDUO,DA250GE,ZHANPFIXIANGMUZONGCUNLIANGDE33.8%;CHENGSHIJIANSHERUDAOLU、GONGYUAN、XIASHUIGUANDAO、GANGWANDENGSHESHI171GE,ZHANBI23.1%;JIANKANGYUHUANJINGLEIXIANGMU113GE,ZHANBI15.3%;ANBAOLEI、SHENGHUOFUZHILEI、CHANYELEIXIANGMUFENBIEWEI26、24HE18XIANG,ZHANBIFENBIEWEI3.5%、3.2%HE2.4%(PFITUIJINWEIYUANHUI,2019)。

RIBENSHEHUILEIJICHUSHESHIPFIXIANGMUSHULIANGYUANDUOYUJINGJIJICHUSHESHILINGYU,YUANYUQIXIANSHIBEIJING:YISHIJICHUJINGJISHESHIYIJIBENWANCHENGJIANSHE,ZHENGTIJIAOWEIWANSHAN,JIANSHEXUQIUXIANGDUIJIAOXIAO;ERSHIRIBENSHAOZILAOLINGHUADUISHEHUIFUWUSHESHIDEXUQIUZENGJIA,CAIZHENGYALIBUDUANJIADA;SANSHIJIAOYUSHESHI、YANGLAOSHESHI、FANGZHENSHESHIZAINEIDEYIYOUGONGGONGSHESHILAOHUA、SHESHIWEIHUHEFANXINDEXUQIUZENGJIA,XUYAOTONGGUOZHIHUIHUA、CHUANGYIHUA、JISHUCHUANGXINDENGCUOSHITISHENGFUWUSHUIPING(YUANGENGZAO,2012)。

(二)地域分布

JINGUANRIBENZHONGYANGBUWEIJIJIGULIFAZHANPPPXIANGMU,DANRIBENPPPXIANGMUZAIDIYUFENBUSHANGCUNZAILIANGJIHUAXIANXIANG。ZAIRIBEN1788GEDIFANGGONGGONGTUANTIZHONG,85%MEIYOUSHISHIPFIXIANGMU,ERZAIJINGJIFADA、RENKOUCHOUMIDEDONGJING、DABANDENGDACHENGSHIQUANJIDAQUYUFEICHANGJIZHONG。ZAIRIBENDEYIJIXINGZHENGQU(DOUDAOFUXIAN)ZHONG,JIEZHI2019NIAN(PINGCHENG31NIAN)3YUECUNLIANGXIANGMUSHULIANGJIAODUODEYIJIXINGZHENGQUWEI:DABANFU(72GE)、DONGJINGDOU(62GE)、AIZHIXIAN(55GE)、SHENNAICHUANXIAN(42GE)、FUGANGXIAN(42GE)。JUTIDIYUFENBURUTU3。

图3  日本PFI项目地域分布情况(截至2019年3月)

PFIXIANGMUZHUYAOJIZHONGDADOUSHIQUANDEZHUYAOYUANYIN:YIFANGMIANSHIYOUYURENKOUJUJIDIQUJUMINGONGGONGSHEHUIHEFUWUDEXUQIUZONGLIANGDA;LINGYIFANGMIANSHIYOUYUZHEIXIEDIQUDEJINGJIJIAOFADA,SHICHANGHUACHENGDUGAO,XINGZHENGZHUTIDENENGLIHESUZHIJIAOGAO。

(三)主要操作方式

GENJUXIANGMUSUOYOUQUANGUISHU,RIBENPFIXIANGMUSHISHIFANGSHIYOUBTO、BOT、BOO、RODENG。

1. BTO

BTOSHIRIBENPFIXIANGMUZUIZHUYAODEFANGSHI(ZHANPFIXIANGMUZONGSHU71.4%),FEICHANGQIHERIBENDESHEHUIJINGJIHUANJINGHEZHENGFUZHILICHUANTONG。ZAIBTOMOSHIXIA,GONGGONGBUMENYONGYOUDUIXIANGMUZICHANDESUOYOUQUAN,YIFANGMIANXIANZHILEXIANGMUGONGSICHUZHIXIANGMUZICHANDEQUANXIAN,BAOZHANGZICHANANQUAN,JIANGDIXIANGMUFENGXIAN;LINGYIFANGMIAN,NENGYOUXIAOGUIBISIYINGJIGOUYINTIANRANDEZHULIXINGYINFADETIGAOJIAGE、ZHUIZHULIRUNDENIXIANGXUANZEXINGWEI,BIANYUGONGGONGBUMENDUIXIANGMUJINXINGYOUXIAOJIANGUANHEGUIZHI;YOUYUBTOFANGSHIDESUOYOUQUANGUISHUGONGGONGBUMEN,SIYINGJIGOU(XIANGMUGONGSI)ZAIHEZUOQIKEYIMIANJIAOCHIYOUWUYEDEGEZHONGSHUISHOU,JIANGDILEXIANGMUGONGSIDEYUNYINGCHENGBEN。

LIRU,JINGGANGXIAN“YUDIANCHANGSHI·XIAOSHANDINGGUANGYUXINGZHENGLIANHEHUILAJIFENSHAOSHEBEIJIANSHEJIYUNYINGXIANGMU”YIJI“YUDIANCHANGSHI·XIAOSHANDINGGUANGYUXINGZHENGLIANHEHUILAJIZAIZIYUANHUASHESHI(HUISHOULIYONGZHONGXIN)JIANSHEYIJIYUNYINGXIANGMU”,YUDIANCHANGSHI·XIAOSHANDINGGUANGYUXINGZHENGLIANHEHUIDOUSHITONGGUOBTOFANGSHISHISHIDE。QIANZHEYOULIANHEHUIYINJINSIYINGJIGOUZAIYUDIANCHANGSHIZHONGXINJIANSHEBENXIANGMU,BINGJIANGSUOYOUQUANYIJIAOLIANHEHUIHOU,ZAIXIANGMUHEZUOQINEI(SHEJIHEJIANSHEQI3NIAN,YUNYINGHEWEIHUGUANLIQI20NIAN)DUIXIANGMUSHESHIJINXINGYUNYING、WEIHUGUANLI,BINGDUIYUDIANCHANGSHIYIJIXIAOSHANDINGSUOCHANSHENGDELAJIJINXINGSHIDANGCHULIHUOZIYUANHUA;HOUZHEYINJINSIYINGJIGOUZAIDUIYUDIANCHANGSHIYIJIXIAOSHANDINGSUOCHANSHENGDELAJISHIDANGCHULIDEJICHUSHANG,XINSHEJIYULIANGSHIDINGGEZIDEZIYUANLAJIHUISHOULIYONGCUOSHI,ZAIJIANGSUOYOUQUANYIJIAOLIANHEHUIZHIHOU,DUIBENSHESHIJINXINGYUNYING。

2. BOT

RIBENPFIXIANGMUXUANZEBOTFANGSHIDEBILIYUEWEI12.3%。ZAIXIANGMUTEXUJINGYINGQINEI,XIANGMUSHESHISUOYOUQUANSHUYUSIYINGJIGOU,ZHIZHITEXUJINGYINGQIJIESHUSUOYOUQUANCAIZHUANYIJIGONGGONGBUMEN。

LIRU,WEIYUSHENNAICHUANXIANDE“SHENNAICHUANXIANLIXIANGNANHAIANGONGYUANHAIYANGZONGHEWENHUAQUSHESHIJIANSHEDENGXIANGMU”DETIYANXUEXISHESHI,CAIYONGBOTFANGSHI,YOUMINJIANSHEJIHEJIANSHE,SUOYOUQUANYIJIAOJIXIANZHENGFUBINGJINXINGYUNYING,TONGGUOYOUKEYU“HAITAN”JIECHUYISHIDAOHUANJINGDEZHONGYAOXING,ZAISHANGSHENGDAOZISHENDEXIANGFAYUXINGDONGDENGSHEHUIJIAOYU。

3. BOO

BOOFANGSHISHITEXUJINGYINGQINEIHETEXUJINGYINGQIHOUXIANGMUDESUOYOUQUANJUNSHUYUXIANGMUGONGSI(HUZHEN,2010)。RIBENPFIXIANGMUXUANZEBOOFANGSHIDEBILIJINYOU3.4%。SIYINGJIGOUYONGYOUXIANGMUSHESHIDESUOYOUQUAN,YOUQUANDUISHESHIJINXINGCHUZHI(RUJIANGSHESHIDIYAJIYINXINGDENG)。ANZHAOPPPHETONGDEYUEDINGYUNYING,BOOXIANGMUBINGJIESHOUZHENGFUDEJIANGUAN,HEZUOQIMAN,XIANGMUGONGSIANZHAOSHICHANGJINGZHENGQINGKUANGJINXINGZIZHUJINGYING,BUZAISHOUPPPXIANGMUHETONGDEZHIYUE。

LIRU,SHENNAICHUANXIAN“XINJIANGZHIDAOSHUIZUGUAN”XIANGMU,SHENNAICHUANXIAN2001NIANTONGGUOBOOFANGSHI,YOUMINJIANZIBEN(OULISHIZHUSHIHUISHE)TOUZIHEJIANSHEYIYULEIDENGXIAOXINGSHENGWUWEIZHUTIDESHENGTAIGUANCHAHEHUANJINGXUEXI、YULE、SHENGWUBAOQUANHEPEIYU、HAIYANGSHENGTAIXITONGDEDIAOCHAHEYANJIUDENGGONGNENGDESHUIZUGUAN,ZAITEXUYUNYINGQI(30NIAN)YONGYOUBINGYUNYINGGAISHUIZUGUAN。

4. RO

ROJIXIUSHAN-YUNYING,ZHUYAOYONGYUDUIXIANYOUSHESHIDEXIUSHAN,GONGGONGBUMENSHIZHONGSHISHESHIDEYONGYOUZHE。RIBENPFIXIANGMUXUANZEROFANGSHIDEBILI4.3%。

LIRU,JINGDOUSHIZUOWEI “JINGDOUSHILIXIAOXUEHECHUZHONGKANGZHENPPPXIANGMU” DEGUANLIZHUTI,YAOQIUXIANGMUGONGSIJIYUJINGDOUSHISISUOZHONGXIAOXUEDEXIANYOUSHESHITIAOJIAN,JINXINGKANGZHENJIAGUHEHOUQIWEIHU。ZHEIYIFANGSHIZAIRIBENDEYUNYONGJIAOSHAO,ZHUYAOYONGYUDUILAOJIUJIANZHUDEZHENGGAIHEFANGZHENJIAGUDENGXIANGMU。

(四)主要付费模式

PPPGAINIANFENWEIXIAYIHEGUANGYI。ANZHAOYINGGUOCAIZHENGBUDEDINGYI(HM Treasury,2008),XIAYIPPPSHIZHI“GONGGONGBUMENYUSIYINGBUMENXIETONGGONGZUOANPAI”;GUANGYIPPPZHIGELEIKUAYUEGONGGONGBUMENHESIYINGBUMENDEHEZUO,BAOKUOXIETONGGONGZUOHEGONGDANFENGXIAN,YISHISHIZHENGCE、TIGONGFUWUHEJICHUSHESHIDEHEZUO。和记国际备用域名SHANGSHANGMEIYOUYIGEPUBIANJIESHOUDEPPPMOSHI,RIBENDEPPPSHIGUANGYIDEGUANYUMIN(GONGYUMIN)XIEZUO。GENJUGONGGONGBUMENHESHIYONGZHECHENGDANFEIYONGCHENGDUDEBUTONG,RIBENPFIXIANGMUDEFUFEIFANGSHIFENWEIFUWUGOUMAIXING、DULIHESUANXINGHEHUNHEXING。

1.FUWUGOUMAIXINGFUFEIFANGSHI,JIXUANDINGDESIYINGJIGOU(PFIXIANGMUJINGYINGZHE)DESHOURULAIYUANYUGONGGONGBUMENZHIJIEGOUMAIZHIFU,SIYINGJIGOULIYONGZHEIXIESHOUYIJINXINGGONGGONGSHESHIDESHEJI、JIANSHE、YUNYINGDENG,XIANGSHIYONGZHETIGONGFUWU,ERWUXUXIANGSHIYONGZHESHOUFEI。FUWUGOUMAIXINGSHIDIANXINGDEPFIMOSHI,RIBENDABUFENPFIXIANGMU(CHAOGUO70%)CAIYONGFUWUGOUMAIXING。YOUYUSIYINGJIGOUDESHOURULAIZIYUZHENGFUYUSUAN,JINGYINGYALIXIANGDUIJIAOXIAO,SHIQIGENJUYUGONGGONGBUMENDEQIYUETIGONGFUWU,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGBAOZHENGLEFUWUZHILIANG。

2.DULIHESUANXINGFUFEIFANGSHI,JISHIYONGZHEFUFEI,ZHIGONGGONGSHESHIHEFUWUDESHIYONGZHEXIANGSIYINGJIGOUJINGYINGZHEZHIFUZIJIN。RUJICHANGHANGZHANLOU、TINGCHECHANGDEJIANSHEHEYUNYINGDENGCAIYONGXIANGSHIYONGZHESHOUFEIDEXINGSHIHUODESHOUYI。

3.HUNHEXINGFUFEIFANGSHIXIA,PFIXIANGMUDESHOUYIJILAIZIGONGGONGSHESHIDEGUANLIZHE,YELAIZIGONGGONGSHESHIHEFUWUDESHIYONGZHE。XIANGMUGONGSIANZHAOYIDINGDEJIAGEXIANGSHIYONGZHESHOUQUFEIYONG,ZHENGFUYIJUHETONGYUEDINGDUIXIANGMUGONGSIJINXINGSHOUYIBUCHANG。RUTIYUCHANGGUANXIANGMUZHONG,ZHENGFUXIANGXIANGMUGONGSIZHIFUJIANZHUSHEJIHEJIANSHEFEIYONG,JUMINXIANGXIANGMUGONGSIZHIFUSHIYONGTIYUQICAIHECHANGDIDEFEIYONG。

(五)政府管理层级

RIBENGEJIDIFANGZHENGFUSHITUIDONGPPPZUIZHONGYAODEGONGGONGZHUTI,BAOKUODOU、DAO、FU、XIANZHEILEIYIJIXINGZHENGZHUTI(GUANGYUXINGDIFANGZIZHITI),HAIBAOKUOSHI、QU、DING、CUN(JICHUDIFANGGONGGONGTUANTI)。GENJU《PFITUIJINFA》DEGUIDING,CHUZHENGFUYIWAI,DULIXINGZHENGFAREN、TESHUFARENDENGQITAGONGGONGFARENYENENGCHENGWEIGONGGONGSHESHIGUANLIDEXINGZHENGZHUTI,BAOKUOYANJIUJIGOU、DAXUE、SHISHISHIQUZAIKAIFASHIYE、TUDIGUIHUASHIYEDENGQITASHIQUKAIFASHIYEDEXIEHUIZUZHIDENG。

ZAIRIBEN740GEPFIXIANGMUZHONG,GEJIDIFANGZIZHITI(JIDIFANGZHENGFU)ZHUDAODEXIANGMU608GE,ZHANRIBENPFIXIANGMUCUNLIANGDE82.2%,SHITUIJINRIBENPFIMOSHIDANGZHIWUKUIDEZHULI;ZHONGYANGZHENGFUBUMENZHUDAODEPPPXIANGMU81GE,ZHANZONGLIANGDE10.9%。CIWAI,51GEPFIXIANGMUYOUDAXUE、YANJIUJIGOU、GUANLIXIEHUIDENGQITAGONGGONGZHUTIWANCHENG,ZHANQUANBUXIANGMUSHULIANGDE6.9%。XIANGJIANBIAO1。

表1  不同主体主导的PFI项目所属行业分布

CONGGELEIXIANGMUZHUTISUOSHULINGYUFENBUKEYIKANCHU,SHEHUIGONGGONGFUWULEIPFIXIANGMUZHUYAOYOUDIFANGZHENGFUYUNZUO。ZHEIYUDIFANGZHENGFUCHENGDANLEGAISHANJUMINSHENGHUOHUANJING、TIGAOJICHUJIAOYU、WANSHANSHEHUIFUZHIDEJIAOSEMIQIEXIANGGUAN(XINGZHUOZHI,2018)。ZHONGYANGZHENGFUDEPFIXIANGMUZHUYAOYOUCAIWUSHENG、GUOTUJIAOTONGSHENG、FAWUSHENG、JINGCHATINGDENGBUMENZUOWEIXIANGMUZHUTI。QITAGONGGONGZHUTIFUZEDEPFIXIANGMUZHUYAOSHIJIAOYUYUWENHUALEI,DAXUEHEYANJIUJIGOUSHIGAILEIPFIXIANGMUDEZHONGYAOLILIANG。

四、中日PPP模式的差异

RIBENPFIFAZHANZHUYAOXIAOFANGYINGGUO,QIBUJIAOWAN,DANFAZHANJIAOKUAI,QIEBAOCHIPINGWEN。ZHONGGUOPPPYUANYUGAIGEKAIFANGCHUQIYINRUDEWAIZIXIANGMU,SHIJIANZAOYURIBEN。2014NIANYIQIANWOGUOZHUYAOSHISHIYONGZHEFUFEILEIDETEXUJINGYINGXIANGMU;2014NIANYOUYUHUAJIEDIFANGZHENGFUZHAIWUWENTIYINFALEXINYILUNPPPRECHAO,FAZHANXUNMENG。BIJIAOZHONGRILIANGGUOPPPMOSHI,FAXIANZAIFALVTIXI、YUNZUOFANGSHI、SHISHILIUCHENG、ZHENGFUJIAOSEDENGFANGMIAN,SHUANGFANGCUNZAIYIXIEMINGXIANCHAYI。

(一)法规体系的差异

PPPDEGUIFANYOUXUTUIJIN,LIBUKAIJIANQUANDEFALV、ZHENGCE、ZHINANHEHETONGDENGFAGUITIXI。RIBENSHIYAZHOULVXIANYIFALVDEXINGSHIKAIZHANPPPXIANGMUDEGUOJIA,ZAOZAI1999NIANJIUBANBULE《PFITUIJINFA》,BINGZAI2001NIAN、2005NIAN、2011NIAN、2013NIANHE2016NIANDUIGAIFAANJINXINGLEXIUZHENG。RIBEN《PFITUIJINFA》HEXINNEIRONGBAOKUOZONGZE、JIBENFANGZHEN、TEDINGXIANGMUDESHISHIXIZE、GONGGONGSHESHIYUNYINGQUANDESHEDING、DUIMINJIANZIJINCANYUTEDINGXIANGMUDEYOUHUICUOSHI、DUIYUXUANDINGXIANGMUDETEBIECUOSHIHEMINJIANZIJINLIYONGXIANGMUTUIJINHUIYIDENG。

RIBEN2000NIANCHUTAI“GUANYUZHIDINGLIYONGMINJIANZIJINDENGGONGGONGSHESHIZHENGBEIXIANGGUANXIANGMUSHISHIDEJIBENFANGZHEN”。YICIFANGZHENWEIZHIDAO,RIBENXIANHOUBANBULEPFIXIANGMU“JINCHENGZHINAN”“FENGXIANFENDANZHINAN”“WUYOUSUOZHIZHINAN”“HETONGZHINAN”HE“JIANDUZHINAN”DENGYIXILIESHISHIXIZEBINGBUDUANGENGXIN,WEIPFIXIANGMUDEKAIZHANTIGONGLEWANZHENGDEGUANLITIXI(JINGWANBO,2017)。

ZHONGGUOSUIRANSHISHIJIESHANGGUIMOZUIDADEPPPSHICHANG,YICHUTAILE《ZHAOBIAOTOUBIAOFA》《ZHENGFUCAIGOUFA》《YUSUANFA》DENGFALV,DANZHIJINSHANGMEIYOUZHUANMENZHENDUIPPPMOSHIDEFALV, PPPDETUIJINHEGUIFANGONGZUOZHUYAOYIKAOGUOJIABUWEIYIJIDIFANGZHENGFUZHIDINGDE“YIJIAN”“TONGZHI”“BANFA”“ZHINAN”“ZHIYIN”“DAOZE”DENGXINGSHIDEBUMENGUIZHANGWENJIAN。RU2019NIANCHUTAIDE《CAIZHENGBUGUANYUTUIJINZHENGFUHESHEHUIZIBENHEZUOGUIFANFAZHANDESHISHIYIJIAN》(CAIJIN〔2019〕10HAO)、《GUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEIGUANYUYIFAYIGUIJIAQIANGPPPXIANGMUTOUZIHEJIANSHEGUANLIDETONGZHI》(FAGAITOUZIGUI〔2019〕1098HAO)DENG。

(二)管理机构的差异

PPPXIANGMUDETUIGUANGYINGYONG,WANGWANGSHEJIDAOGONGGONGBUMENZHILIJIZHIDEGAIGE,SHEJIDAOPANHUOCUNLIANGGONGGONGZICHAN,CHUANGXINXIANGMUYUNZUOMOSHI,SHITUIDONGGONGGONGBUMENGAIGEDEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。RIBENZHENDUIPFIXIANGMU,CONGHONGGUANDIAOKONGDAOWEIGUANJIANLILEJIANQUANDEZUZHIGUANLIJIEGOU(WANGTIANYI、YANGBIN,2018)。

RIBENHENDUOZHENGFUJIGOUDOUCANYUFPIDETUIDONG,RUFAWUSHENG、CAIWUSHENG、JINGJICHANYESHENG、GUOTUJIAOTONGSHENG、HUANJINGSHENGDENG。RIBENNEIGEZHUANMENCHENGLILEPFITUIJINWEIYUANHUI,ZHISHURIBENNEIGEFU,TONGCHOUFUZEPFIXIANGMUDEGUANLIHETUIGUANGGONGZUO。DIFANGZHENGFUYOUYUNENGLIBUZUDENGYUANYIN,DUIPPPMOSHIPUBIANBUTAIJIJI,TEBIEDANXINPFIXIANGMUYOUYUDAXINGQIYEZHONGBIAOERPAICHILEDANGDIZHONGXIAOQIYESHICHANGCANYUJIHUI。CIWAI,ZHUANYEDEZUZHIJIGOUZUOWEIZIXUNZHINANGTUAN,WEIPFIXIANGMUTIGONGZHUANYEHUADEZHIDAOHEFUWU。

ZHONGGUOXINYILUNPPPRECONGZHONGYANGDAODIFANGDOUPUBIANZHICHI,YOUQISHIDIFANGZHENGFUREQINGGAOZHANG,ZHONGYANGBUWEIQIANTOUTUIDONGDEPPPXIANGMUJISHAO。WOGUOMEIYOUYIGELEISIRIBENNEIGEFUZHISHUDEPFITUIJINWEIYUANHUIDETONGYIPPPGUANLIJIGOU,ERYOUGUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEI、CAIZHENGBUFENBIEQIANTOUTUIJIN,PPPGUANLIZHIZEFENGONGBUQING,QUESHIYOUXIAODEXIEDIAOJIZHI。CIWAI,WOGUOPPPZHUANYEHUAFUWUSHICHANGYEBUCHENGSHU,GELEIZIXUNJIGOUYUMUHUNZHU;HENDUODIFANGZHENGFUHESHISHIJIGOUTONGGUO“DUANMINGDAN”“JIGOUKU”DENGFANGSHI,XIANZHISHEHUIZIBENFANG、JINRONGJIGOUDENGZIZHUXUANZEPPPZIXUNJIGOU。

(三)回报机制的差异

RIBENZAOQIPFIXIANGMUZHUYAOSHIZHENGFUFUWUGOUMAIXING(ZHENGFUFUFEI)DESHEHUIGONGYIXIANGMU(RUZHONGXIAOXUEXIAO、GONGLIYIYUANDENG),JINNIANKAISHICHUXIANDULIHESUANXING(SHIYONGZHEFUFEI)HEHUNHEXING(SHIYONGZHEFUFEI+ZHENGFUBUTIE)DEPPPXIANGMU。

RIBENCHAOGUO70%DEPFIXIANGMUXUANZELEGOUMAIFUWUXING,GONGGONGBUMENXIANGXIANGMUGONGSIFUFEI,XIANGMUGONGSI(PFIXIANGMUJINGYINGZHE)ZHIXUANZHAOHETONGDEGUIDINGJINXINGSHEJI、JIANSHE、YUNYINGYIJIWEIHUGUANLI。RIBENPFIXIANGMUXUANZEDULIHESUANXINGFUFEIFANGSHIDEXIANGMUHENSHAO(BUZU10%)。SUIRANZHENGFUFUWUGOUMAIXINGXIANGMUZHANJUJUEDUI“ZHULI”,DANYOUYUTEXUJINGYINGNENGGOUGENGHAODIDIAODONGSIYINGJIGOUDEJIJIXING,DUIYUHUANJIECAIZHENGFUDAN,TIGAOXIAOLVJUYOUGENGHAOXIAOGUO,TEXUJINGYINGZHENGCHENGWEIRIBENPFIDEYIGEFAZHANFANGXIANG,JUYOUHENQIANGDEFAZHANQIANLI。2016NIAN6YUE2RI,RIBENNEIGEFUTONGGUO“RIBENYIYUANZONGHUOYUEJIHUA”,ZHONGDIANLINGYUTUIJINTEXUQUANXIANGMUHEQITADULIHESUANXINGHEHUNHEXINGXIANGMUDEGUIMOWEI5WANYIRIYUAN,FUWUGOUMAIXINGXIANGMUWEI5WANYIRIYUAN。

ZHONGGUOCONG1984NIANDAO2013NIANDI,ZAIGAOSUGONGLU、GUIDAOJIAOTONG、QIAOLIANGSUIDAO、WUSHUILAJICHULI、NENGYUANDENGSHIYONGZHEFUFEIWEIZHUDELINGYUGONGSHISHILE3000DUOGESHIYONGZHEFUFEILEIDETEXUJINGYINGXIANGMU(WUWEI,2017)。2014YILAIJIYUJIANGDIDIFANGZHENGFUZHAIWUDEXIANSHIXUYAO,YOUCAIZHENGBULVXIANFAQILEXINYILUNPPPRECHAO,MUQIANSANLEIFUFEIPPPXIANGMUTONGSHICUNZAI,ERQIEZHENGFUFUFEIHEBUTIELEIXIANGMUCHENGXIANMANYANQUSHI。JIEZHI2019NIAN12YUEMO,CAIZHENGBUQUANGUOPPPZONGHEXINXIPINGTAISHOULUGUANLIKUXIANGMULEIJI9440GE、TOUZIE14.4WANYIYUAN。QIZHONG,SHIYONGZHEFUFEILEI(LEISIDULIHESUANXING)XIANGMU629GE、TOUZIE1.4WANYIYUAN,KEXINGXINGQUEKOUBUZHULEI(LEISIHUNHEFUFEILEI)XIANGMU5418GE、TOUZIE9.7WANYIYUAN,ZHENGFUFUFEILEI(LEISIZHENGFUFUWUGOUMAIXING)XIANGMU3393GE、TOUZIE3.3WANYIYUAN(CAIZHENGBUZHENGFUHESHEHUIZIBENHEZUOZHONGXIN,2020)。KEJIAN,WOGUOSHIYONGZHEFUFEILEI(DULIHESUANXING)XIANGMUBILIYEJIAODI,DANKEXINGXINGQUEKOUBUZHULEI(HUNHEFUFEILEI)XIANGMUBILIZUIDA,XIANGMUSHULIANGZHANGUANLIKUZONGXIANGMUSHUDEBILIWEI57.4%;ERZHENGFUFUFEILEI(ZHENGFUFUWUGOUMAIXING)XIANGMUBILIWEI35.9%,YUANDIYURIBENDETONGLEIPPPXIANGMUBILI。

(四)运作方式的差异

PPPMOSHISHISHIFANGSHIDUOZHONGDUOYANG,XINJIANXIANGMUBAOKUOBOT、BTO、BOO、DBFOTDENG,CUNLIANGXIANGMUBAOKUOTOT、TOO、ROTDENG。RIBENPPPXIANGMUDADUOCAIYONGBOTHEBTOMOSHISHISHI,QIZHONGBTOMOSHIZHANPPPXIANGMUZONGSHU71.4%,TEBIESHIZAIZHENGFUGONGWU、CHANYEJICHUSHESHI、JIAOYUYUWENHUADENGLINGYUDEPPPXIANGMU,GENGGUANGFANCAIYONGBTO FANSHI。RIBENBTOMOSHIYUWOGUOGELEI“JIAZHANGBANBT”CUNZAIBENZHICHAYI,QIJIANSHECHENGBENHEYUNYINGCHENGBENBIXUZAIXIANGMUQUANSHOUMINGZHOUQIZHUNIANYIJUJIXIAOZHIFU;RIBENZHISUOYICAIYONGBTO,XIANYIJIAOZAIYUNYING,ZHUYAOSHIWEILEJIESHUI(BIMIANJIAONACAICHANCHIYOUSHUI)DEXUYAO。

WOGUOPPPXIANGMUFANGSHIZHUYAOXUANZEBOTFANGSHI。YOUYUQUANGUOPPPZONGHEXINXIPINGTAIXIANGMUGUANLIKUMEIYOUPPPYUNZUOMOSHIDETONGJISHUJU。JINYIZHONGGUO和记国际备用域名GONGCHENGZIXUNGONGSI(JIANCHENGZHONGZIGONGSI)2017NIANCHENGDANDEGUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEIDIERPI43GEPPPDIANXINGANLIPINGGUWEILI(HANZHIFENGDENG,2018;XUCHENGBIN,2019a)),ZAIGUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEIFABUDE43GEPPPDIANXINGANLIZHONG,CAIYONGBOTFANGSHI26GE、BOOTFANGSHI3GE、DBFOTFANGSHI7GE、BOOFANGSHI4GE、TOTFANGSHI1GE、ROTFANGSHI1GE、QITAFANGSHI1GE(GUANGANSHI“JIEJINGSHUI”XINGDONGZONGHEZHILIXIANGMUCAIYONGBOT+TOT+ROTZUHEMOSHI)。KEJIAN,ZAIZHONGGUOPPPYUNZUOSHIJIANZHONG,BOTFANGSHICHAOGUOYIBAN,ERRIBENZUIWEISHENGXINGDEBTOFANGSHIZAIZHONGGUOHENSHAOJIAN。

(五)股权结构的差异

RIBENPFIZHUYAOJIEJIANYINGGUOPFIMOSHIDEJINGYAN,ZAOQICENGJINGCHANGSHIZHENGFUCANGUXIANGMUGONGSI(SPC),DUOYISHIBAIGAOZHONG。SUIRANFALVFAGUIMEIYOUYAOQIUZHENGFUBUDECANGUSPC,DANRIBENPFIXIANGMUSHIJIANZHONG,ZHENGFUYIBANBUZUOGUQUANTOUZI(ZIBENJINZHURU),JINWEIGOUMAIGONGGONGFUWUERYIJUJIXIAOFUFEIHUOZHIFUBUTIE,ZHEIBUJINYUZHONGGUOMUQIANZHENGFUCAIZHENGZIJINGUODUODIJIERUXIANGMUTOUZIDEZHENGCEDAOXIANGBUTONG,YEYUYINGGUO2012NIANYIHOUTUIXINGDEPF2MOSHICUNZAICHAYI。

ZHONGGUOPPPMOSHIGULIZHENGFUFANGYIZIBENJINZHURUFANGSHITOUZIYUPPPXIANGMU,ZHIZAIZENGQIANGPPPXIANGMUXINXIDETOUMINGXING,ZENGQIANGXIANGMURONGZIXINYONG,JIANGDIXIANGMUHOUXUZHENGFUKEXINGXINGBUTIE,YINDAOSHEHUIZIBENDETOUZIXINGWEI,YIBIANZHENGFUFANG(SHISHIJIGOUHUOCHUZIRENDAIBIAO)GENGHAODIWEIHUGONGGONGLIYIHEGENGYOUXIAODICANYUDAOSPCDEZHILITIXI。

RENGYI2017NIANZHONGZIGONGSIPINGGUTUIJIANDEGUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEIDIERPI43GEPPPDIANXINGANLIWEILI。ZHENGFUCANGUDEYOU30GE,ZHAN69.8%;ZHENGFUBUCANGUDEGONG13GE,ZHAN30.2%。ZAIMINGQUEXIANGMUZIBENJINJIEGOUDE42GEXIANGMUZHONG,ZHENGFUZIBENJINCHUZIHEJI156.66YIYUAN,SHEHUIZIBENFANGCHUZIHEJI333.51YIYUAN,JIZHENGFUYUSHEHUIZIBENFANGDEPINGJUNGUQUANJIEGOUBILIYUEWEI32%:68%。ZAIXIANGMUGONGSIKONGGUQUANFANGMIAN,JUEDADUOSHUPPPDIANXINGANLIDESHEHUIZIBENFANG(HUOQILIANHETI)CHUYUJUEDUIKONGGUDIWEI,2GEXIANGMU(HANGZHOUDITIE1HAOXIANHEGUANGANSHI“JIEJINGSHUI”XINGDONGZONGHEZHILI)YOUZHENGFUFANGKONGGU。

五、日本PPP模式的借鉴

JINGUANRIBENDEPPPMOSHIYUZHONGGUODEPPPMOSHICUNZAISHANGSHUCHAYI,DANRIBENTUIXINGPPPMOSHIDEHENDUOJINGYANZHIDEZHONGGUOXUEXI。

(一)注重PPP项目质量而非数量,不盲目扩大PPP模式应用范围

RIBENPPPXIANGMUCHENGGONGLVHENGAO,GUANJIANYINSUZHIYISHISHIFENZHONGSHIXIANGMUQIANQILUNZHENG,DUIYUBUJUBEITIAOJIANDEPPPXIANGMUZAIQIANDINGQIYUEQIANGUODUANZHONGDUAN。2014NIANSHUJUXIANSHI,YUE1%DEXIANGMUYOUYUWUYOUSUOZHIJIAODI、FANGZHENGAIBIANDENGYUANYIN,ZAIQIANYUEHOUJIECHUHETONGHUOBUFENJIEYUE,JIBIMIANPPPXIANGMUZAIKAIFAGUOCHENGZHONGYINGEZHONGWENTIWEIGONGSISHUANGFANGDAILAISUNSHI,YEBIMIANLEJUDADEZIYUANLANGFEI。

JIEZHI2019NIANDI,ZHONGGUOQIANYUELUODIPPPXIANGMULEIJI6330GE,LUODILV67.1%,BILIXIANGDUIJIAODI,QIYUANYINSHIDUOFANGMIANDE。QIZHONGPPPZHENGCENANYIBAOCHIWENDINGSHENZHIQIANHOUXIANGZUO、PPPXIANGMUGUIMOKUOZHANGGUOKUAI、XIANGMUQIANQILUNZHENGGONGZUOZHILIANGJIAODI、PPPXIANGMUTOUZIHUIBAOGUODUODIYILAIZHENGFUFUFEIHUOBUTIEDENGYINSUSHIGUANJIANYUANYIN。

YINCI,ZHONGGUOYINGJIAQIANGPPPMOSHISHIYONGXINGYEHEQUYUDEFENLEIZHIDAO,SHIPPPMOSHIGENGHAODITONGGEDIQU、GEXINGYEDEJUTIYAOQIUXIANGJIEHE。DIFANGZHENGFUYINGCHONGFENKAOLVDANGDICAIZHENGKECHENGSHOUNENGLI,PINGHENGHAOPPPXIANGMUDEGUIMOHESUDU,CHONGFENFAHUISHICHANGJIZHI,BUDUANJILEIJINGYAN,ZAIYANGEKONGZHIDIFANGZHAIWUFENGXIANDETONGSHI,YINGGAIJIANGPPPMOSHIZUOWEICUJINQUYUJINGJIFAZHANHETOURONGZITIZHIGAIGEDEGONGJU,GULIFAZHANTEXUJINGYING,TONGGUOSHICHANGJIZHIHEZIYUANZHENGHE,PINGHENGHAOZHENGFUFAZHANJINGJIHESHEHUIZIBENSHIXIANTOUZIHUIBAOZHIJIANDEGUANXI(LIKAIMENG,2015)。

(二)依法依规执行PPP操作流程,注重项目前期可研系统论证

PPPXIANGMUBIXUYANGEYIFAYIGUISHISHI。RIBENPFITUIJINFAGUIDINGLEPFIXIANGMUDESHISHILIUCHENG,BAOKUOQIHUAJIEDUAN(GUIHUAJIXIANGMUJIHUISHIBIE)、FANGZHENJUEDINGJIEDUAN(ZHIDINGSHISHIFANGAN)、ZHAOMUJIEDUAN(SIYINGQIYEXUANZE)HEXIANGMUSHISHIJIEDUAN,DANXIANGMUQIHUAHEFANGZHENJUEDINGJIEDUAN,XUYAOZHIDINGXIANGXIDECEHUAFANGANHEJIHUA(RUFUWUNEIRONG、XIANGMUGONGNENGHEJIANSHEBIYAOXING),XITONGKAIZHANCAIYONGPFIMOSHIDEKEXINGXINGYANJIU(RUSHICHANGYUCE、YINRUMINJIANZIJINDEMOSHIXUANZE、HEZUOFANWEI、XIANGMUGONGSIZHILIJIZHI)。ZAIXIANGMUKEXINGXINGYANJIUGUOCHENGZHONG,XUYAOKAIZHANGONGZHONGCANYU,CHONGFENZHENGQIUSHIMINYIJIAN。ZHIYOUDANGSHIMINYIJIANYIZHI,XIANGMUCAIKENENGHUODEYIHUIPIZHUN;RUGUOXIANGMUKEXINGXINGLUNZHENGRENWEIXIANGMUJIANSHEBIYAOXINGBUZU,HUOZHECUNZAIJIAODAFANDUIYIJIAN,XIANGMUJIANGHUIBEIGEZHI。

ZHONGGUOJICHUSHESHIHEGONGGONGSHIYELINGYUSHANGQUEFAGULISHEHUICANYUDE“ZHANGQIWENDINGDEZHIDUANPAI”,GELEITOUZIZHUTICANYUJICHUSHESHIHEGONGGONGSHIYETOUZIQUESHIFALVBAOZHANG。ZHENGFUGUIFANPPPCAOZUODEWENJIANZHUYAOSHIBUMENGUIZHANG,QUANWEIXINGBUZU。TEBIESHIZI2017NIANXIABANNIANYILAI,ZHONGGUOPPPSHICHANGJINRU“GUIFANFAZHAN”DEXINJIEDUAN,PPPSHICHANGCONGGAOFEIMENGJINTURANBEIJINJI“CHACHE”,HENDUOTOUZIZHEHEJINRONGJIGOUJINRULEGUANWANGZHUANGTAI。

PPPXIANGMUQIANQIGONGZUOYINGXIANGSHENYUAN,BIXUYIFAJIANGKEXINGXINGYANJIUZUOWEIQIANQILUNZHENGHEXINGONGZUO,JIANGPPPXIANGMUHEGUIXING、JISHUFANGANBIXUANHEYOUHUA、TOURONGZIHECAIWUFENXIDENGNEIRONGNARUXIANGMUBENSHENKEXINGXINGLUNZHENGZHONG。2019NIAN7YUE1RI,GENJU《ZHENGFUTOUZITIAOLI》HE《QIYETOUZIXIANGMUHEZHUNHEBEIANTIAOLI》,GUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEITICHULE《GUANYUYIFAYIGUIJIAQIANGPPPXIANGMUTOUZIHEJIANSHEGUANLIDETONGZHI》(FAGAITOUZIGUI〔2019〕1098HAO),MINGQUETICHUSUOYOUPPPXIANGMUBIXUKAIZHANKEXINGXINGLUNZHENG,JIYAO“CONGJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANXUYAO、GUIHUAYAOQIU、JISHUHEJINGJIKEXINGXING、HUANJINGYINGXIANG、TOURONGZIFANGAN、ZIYUANZONGHELIYONGYIJISHIFOUYOULIYUTISHENGRENMINSHENGHUOZHILIANGDENGFANGMIAN”LUNZHENGXIANGMUKEXINGXING,YEYAO“CONGZHENGFUTOUZIBIYAOXING、ZHENGFUTOUZIFANGSHIBIXUAN、XIANGMUQUANSHENGMINGZHOUQICHENGBEN、YUNYINGXIAOLV、FENGXIANGUANLIYIJISHIFOUYOULIYUXIYINSHEHUIZIBENCANYUDENGFANGMIAN”LUNZHENGXIANGMUSHIFOUSHIYICAIYONGPPPMOSHIDENG(XUCHENGBIN,2019b)。

(三)坚持公开招标遴选社会资本方,通过竞争性磋商优化方案

RIBENPFIQIANGDIAOTONGGUOJINGZHENGFANGSHI(GONGKAIZHAOBIAOWEIZHU)XUANZEZUIJIAHEZUOFANG。ZAIJINGBIAOJIEDUANQUEDINGXIANGGUANJIAGE,BINGYUEDINGXIANGMUGONGSIYUNYINGNANYICHIXUSHIDEQINGSUANWENTI,QUEBAOLEXIANGMUJINGZHENGXINGHEGONGKAIXING。ZHENGFUCAIZHENGZHICHU(RUBUTIE)BUNENGZIYOUCAILIANG,BIXUTIQIANHUODEYIHUIPIZHUN。

PPPXIANGMUZHIYOUTONGGUOCUOSHANG,DALIGULISHEHUIZIBENDUIYUANYOUSHISHIFANGANJINXINGYOUHUA,CAIKENENGSHIXIANWUYOUSUOZHI。ZAIXUANZESHEHUIZIBENGUOCHENGZHONG,RIBENJIANCHIGONGKAIZHAOBIAOYUJINGZHENGXINGCUOSHANGXIANGJIEHE。ZAIGONGBUZHAOBIAOZHUYAOSHIXIANGHOU,YUBAOMINGZHEJINXINGCUOSHANGDUIHUA,TIGAODUIXIANGMUDEZONGZHI、YITUDENGDELIJIE。ZAIZHENGSHIQIANYUEZHIQIAN,YAOQIUHEGEDESHEHUIZIBENFANGJINYIBUTIGONGJIANSHEHEYUNYINGJISHUFANGANDEYOUHUATIAN,TONGGUOJINGZHENGXINGCUOSHANGXUANZEZUIZHONGZHONGBIAODESHEHUIZIBENFANG。YIBANLAISHUO,CONGTOUBIAO(SHOULITIANSHU)DAOGONGBUSHENCHAJIEGUO,XUYAOJINGJI2~3GEYUE。XIANGMUPINGBIAOYIBANDOUCAIYONGZONGHEPINGBIAOFA,JISHUTIANDOUZHANJUZHUYAOQUANZHONG,JIAGEYIBANBUZAICUOSHANGDEFANWEI。ZAIGONGBUGONGBUSHENCHAJIEGUOHOU,YIBANHAIXUYAOJINGGUOYUE6GEYUEDETANPANCAINENGQIANDINGHETONG。

WOGUO《ZHAOBIAOTOUBIAOFA》HE《ZHENGFUCAIGOUFA》DOUMINGQUEGUIDING,GONGKAIZHAOBIAOSHILINXUANSHEHUIZIBENFANGDESHOUXUANFANGSHI,DANZAIPPPSHIJIANZHONG,YAOQINGZHAOBIAO、JINGZHENGXINGXINGCUOSHANG、JINGZHENGXINGTANPANSHENZHIDANYILAIYUANTANPANDENGFANGSHILVJIANBUXIAN。2014NIANCAIZHENGBUCHUTAI《ZHENGFUCAIGOUJINGZHENGXINGCUOSHANGCAIGOUFANGSHIGUANLIZANXINGBANFA》(CAIKU〔2014〕214HAO)ZHIHOU,JINGZHENGXINGCUOSHANGSHENZHICHENGWEIHENDUOPPPXIANGMUXUANZESHEHUIZIBENDESHOUXUANFANGSHI。ZAIWOGUOXIANXINGDEJINGZHENGXINGCUOSHANGHUANJIE,QUESHIGONGCHENGJISHUFANGANHEYUNYINGGUANLIFANGANDEJINYIBUBIXUANHEYOUHUA,ZHENGFUFANGHESHEHUIZIBENFANGBOYIDEHEXINHUANJIEJIBENSHANGSHIXIANGMUBAOJIAHUOZHENGFUFUFEIDUOSHAO,JIEGUOWANGWANGSHI“ZUIDIJIAZHONGBIAO”,BEILILEJINGZHENGXINGCUOSHANGDECHUZHONG。CONGZHONGBIAODESHEHUIZIBENFANGSUOYOUZHIKAN,HENDUOLINGYUDEPPPSHICHANG,TEBIESHIDAXINGJICHUSHESHICAIYONGPPPMOSHI,CHENGWEIGUOYOUQIYESHENZHIZHONGYANGQIYEDEHAOMENSHENGYAN,“ZUIDIJIAZHONGBIAO”DEQUEKOUWANGWANGTONGGUOSHIGONGLIRUNLAIFANBU,ERBUSHITONGGUOTIGAOPPPXIANGMUDEYUNYINGFUWUZHILIANGHUOJINGYINGCHENGBENDEJIEYUEHUODEHELIHUIBAOHUOSHIXIAN“WUYOUSUOZHI”(XUCHENGBIN,2018)。

(四)重视政府机构能力建设,更好地发挥政府在PPP中的作用

RIBENPPPMOSHIQUDEDEJUDACHENGGONG,LIBUKAIZHENGFUGONGPINGGONGZHENGDEPINGGU、YOUXUDESHICHANG、YANGEDEJIANGUAN,ZHENGFU(GONGGONGBUMEN)BUJINZAIXIANGMUQIANQILUNZHENGHEZHAOBIAOJIEDUANFAHUIZHUDAOJIAOSE,ZAIPFIXIANGMUHETONGZHENGSHIQIANDINGHOU,DUIXIANGMUDECHUBUSHEJI(JIBENSHEJI)、SHIGONGTUSHEJI(SHISHISHEJI)、SHIGONGHEYUNYINGJINXINGJIANGUAN,BINGDUIXIANGMUGONGSI(SPC)DECAIWUZHUANGKUANGJINXINGSHENJI。

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参考文献

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韩志峰、李开孟、王翔、徐成彬,2018:《中国政府和社会资本合作(PPP)项目典型案例》,北京:中国计划出版社。

胡振,2010:“公私合作项目范式选择研究---以日本案例为研究对象”,《公共管理学报》,2010,7(3):113-115。

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刘敏,2018:《日本PFI的立法模式及其对我国的启示》, 山东大学,2018:9-11。

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吴为, 2017:“推动PPP健康发展 全方位开启投融资新格局---专访国家发展改革委副秘书长、投资司司长许昆林”,中国经济导报,2017-2-24(B2).

徐成彬,2018:“评‘PPP民十条’:当PPP‘新酒’第一次装入民间投资的‘老坛’”. 《中国工程咨询》,2018,1:43-44。

——2019a:“国家发展改革委第二批PPP项目典型案例总体分析”,《中咨研究》, https: //mp.weixin.qq.com/s/3e7UULrGhwPRuP3oKe8ggw,2019-06-02。

--- 2019b:“PPP与《政府投资条例》齐飞 ‘规范’共‘法治’一色”,《中国经济导报》,2019-07-17。

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国土交通省,2018:“PPP/PFIの推進について.” http://www.mlit.go.jp/common/001090779.pdf.

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原耕造,2012:“公共施設マネジメントの重要キーワード (“PPP手法の活用” と“包括化(バンドリング)”).” 日本不動産学会誌,25(4):77-83.

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