智库建议

王龙运 黄建明 尤振平 | “十四五” 有色金属工业需要转型发展
发布日期:2020-09-21 作者:王龙运 黄建明 尤振平 信息来源:中咨智库 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

 导 读 

国内市场对有色金属等大宗原材料的需求也由持续增长期转入“微增长”的平台期,和记国际备用域名市场竞争日趋激烈,未来我国有色金属产品出口空间将被严重挤压。加快转型发展的任务显得十分艰巨

●“十三五”有色金属工业发展回顾

●“十四五”发展面临的形势

●“十四五”有色金属工业的主要任务

“SHISIWU”SHIQISHIWOGUOQUANMIANJIANCHENGXIAOKANGSHEHUIHOUDEXINQIDIAN,ZHUANBIANFAZHANFANGSHI、YOUHUAJINGJIJIEGOU、ZHUANHUANZENGZHANGDONGLIJINRUGUANJIANSHIQI。MIANDUIGENGJIAFUZADEGUONEIWAIFAZHANHUANJING,KEXUEGUIHUAHELIXINGYINDAOYOUSEJINSHUCHANYEYOUXUJIANKANGFAZHAN,DUIYUTUIDONGJINGJIGAOZHILIANGFAZHANHEZENGJINRENMINFUZHIJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。

 “十三五”有色金属工业发展回顾

WOGUOYOUSEJINSHUGONGYE“SHISANWU”YILAIFAZHANJUYOUJIGEXIANMINGTEDIAN:

(一)由规模扩张型向质量效益型转变

CHANLIANGZENGFUMINGXIANHUILUO。2016-2019NIANQIJIAN,ZHUYAOYOUSEJINSHUCHANPINCHANLIANGNIANJUNZENGFU3.3%,JIAO“SHIERWU”ZENGFUHUILUOJIN7.2GEBAIFENDIAN。QIZHONG:JINGTONGCHANLIANGNIANJUNZENGFU5.3%,JIAO“SHIERWU”ZENGFUHUILUO6.6GEBAIFENDIAN;YUANLVCHANLIANGNIANJUNZENGFU2.7%,JIAO“SHIERWU”QIJIANZENGFUHUILUO11.5GEBAIFENDIAN。

YELIANCHANNENGKUOZHANGSHITOUDEDAOEZHI。“SHISANWU”YILAI,YOUSEJINSHUGONGYEGUDINGZICHANTOUZIECHENGXIAJIANGQUSHI,TEBIESHIYOUSEJINSHUYELIANXIANGMUTOUZIXIAHUAYOUQIMINGXIAN。DUONIANWEIJIEJUEDEDIANJIELVCHANNENGMANGMUKUOZHANGJIBENDEDAOEZHI,CHANNENGZHIHUANYIJINGCHENGWEIZIJUEXINGDONG。

CHANYEJIEGOUDIAOZHENGQUDEJINZHAN。CONGCHANYEBUJUKAN,DIANJIELVSHENGCHANKAISHIXIANGSHUIDIANDENGQINGJIENENGYUANBIJIAOFENGFUDEYUNNAN、SICHUANDIQUZHUANYI,YILAIRANMEIFADIANDEJUMIANFASHENGGAIBIAN。CONGCHANPINJIEGOUKAN,HANGKONGLVLIAO、QICHELVCAIKAIFAHEYINGYONGQUDETUPO,JILI—ZHONGLVLIANHETIDEQUANLVCHENGYONGCHEYIJINGTUIXIANGSHICHANG。CONGCHANYEZUZHIJIEGOUKAN,LONGTOUQIYESHILIJINYIBUZENGQIANG,2019NIANWUDALVQIYEDEYANGHUALVCHANLIANGZHANQUANGUODE70%YISHANG,DIANJIELVCHANLIANGZHAN55%YISHANG,CHANYEJIZHONGDUMINGXIANTISHENG。

TUOZHANYINGYONGWEIFAZHANTIGONGXINDONGNENG。JIANZHULINGYUDE“YILVJIEMU”、JIAOTONGLINGYUDE“YILVDAIGANG”、BAOZHUANGLINGYUDE“YILVDAISU”DENGFANGMIANQUDEZHONGYAOJINZHAN。YOUQISHIJIANZHULVMOBANDETUIGUANGSHIYONG,CHENGJIFEIRAN。ZAIBUDAOSHINIANDESHIJIANLI,SHICHANGZHANYOULVCONGJIHUKONGBAI,FAZHANDAO25%YISHANG,LEIJIZENGJIALVXIAOFEILIANG500WANDUN,CHENGWEILADONGLVXIAOFEIZENGZHANGDEZUIZHONGYAOLINGYU。

(二)战略性矿产资源基地建设稳步推进

“SHISANWU”YILAI,GUOJIADUANQUEKUANGCHANZIYUANJIDIJIANSHEMAICHUXINBUFA。XIZANGYULONGTONGKUANG、QULONGTONGKUANGKAIGONGJIANSHE;HEILONGJIANGDUOBAOSHANTONGKUANG、XIZANGJIAMATONGKUANGKUOJIANJIBENWANCHENG。JIANGXILIYUNMU、QINGHAIYANHUTILIQUDETUPO,GUONEIYUANLIAOTANSUANLICHANLIANGCONG1WANDUNZUOYOU,MENGZENGDAO6.5WANDUNYISHANG,GUONEIZHANLVEXINGKUANGCHANDEZIYUANBAOZHANGNENGLIXIANZHUZENGQIANG。

(三)绿色发展跨上新高度

LVSEZHIZAONENGLIBUDUANZENGQIANG。MUQIANJINGJINJIJIZHOUBIANDIQUDAQIWURANFANGZHIQUAN、FENWEIPINGYUANDAQIWURANFANGZHIQUAN、ZHANGJIANGSANJIAOZHOUDAQIWURANFANGZHIQUANNEIDEYOUSEJINSHUYELIANQIYE、TANSUZHIZAOQIYEDENGYIJINGZHIXINGZUIDIXIANZHIDEWURANWUPAIFANGBIAOZHUN。

XUNHUANJINGJIMAISHANGXINTAIJIE。2019NIAN,WOGUOZAISHENGTONGCHANLIANGDADAO330WANDUN,BI2015NIANZENGZHANGLE7.6%;ZAISHENGLVCHANLIANG725WANDUN,BI2015NIANZENGZHANGLE26%;ZAISHENGQIANCHANLIANG237WANDUN,BI2015NIANZENGZHANGLE58%。

ZHONGJINSHUWURANFANGZHIQUDEJINBU。GUOJIAZUZHIZHIDINGLESHEZHONGJINSHUWURANDETONGYELIAN、QIANXINYELIAN、XITIYELIANDENGBAGEXINGYEDEQINGJIESHENGCHANJISHUTUIXINGFANGAN。DALITUIGUANGYINGYONGZHONGJINSHUFEISHUISHENGWUZHIJIFASHENDUCHULIYUHUIYONGJISHU。

(四)“走出去”发展取得成果

JINGWAIZIYUANJIDIJIANSHEJIECHUSHUOGUO,GANGGUO(JIN)HEZANBIYADETONGGUZIYUANJIDI、JINEIYALVTUKUANGJIDI、YINNINIEZIYUANJIDI、MILUTONGZIYUANJIDI、AODALIYALIZIYUANJIDIDENGJIANSHEYIJINGXINGCHENGGUIMO,QIEJIBENHUODELEYUQITOUZIXIAOYI。2019NIAN,WOGUOQIYEKONGZHIDEJINGWAITONGKUANGCHANLIANGYIJINGDADAO170WANDUN(TONGJINSHU)YISHANG,CHAOGUOLEGUONEICHANLIANG;LVTUKUANGCHANLIANGCHAOGUO4000WANDUN,XIANGDANGYUGUONEICHANLIANGDEERFENZHIYI。

(五)创新驱动成为发展新动力

QIYEKEJITOURUZENGZHANGXIANZHU。2018NIANGUIMOYISHANGQUANGUOYOUSEJINSHUGONGYEQIYEYANFAJINGFEITOURUQIANGDUBI2015NIANTISHENGLE0.21GEBAIFENDIAN,YIPIGUGANQIYEYANFAJINGFEITOURUQIANGDUDADAO2%YISHANG。

ZHINENGZHIZAOWENBUTUIJIN。DASHUJU、YUNJISUAN、WULIANWANGYIJINGSHENTOUDAOYOUSEJINSHUXINGYESHENGCHANJINGYINGDEGEGEHUANJIE,SHUZIKUANGSHAN、ZHINENGGONGCHANGJIANSHEBUDUANTUIJIN。

XINCAILIAOKAIFAHEYINGYONGCHENGGUOXIANZHU。ZIZHUKAIFADEGAOCHUNJINSHU、8YINGCUNGUIPIAN、YINXIANKUANGJIACAILIAODENGJICHENGDIANLUCAILIAODEDAOSHIYONGDANWEIRENZHENG,SHIXIANLEPILIANGGONGHUO,WEIDAPOGUOWAI“KABOZI”HEJISHUFENGSUOTIGONGLEKEKAOZHICHENG。

“十四五”发展面临的形势

DANGQIANSHIJIEZHENGMIANLINBAINIANWEIYOUZHIDABIANJU,YOUJINGJIDONGNENGZHUANHUAN、和记国际备用域名GEJUYANBIAN、ZHILITIXIZHONGSUDAOZHIDEDADONGDANG、DADIAOZHENG、DABIANGESHIBUKEDANG。YIFANGMIAN,XINJISHUGEMINGHECHANYEBIANGEDACHAOCHIXUTUIJIN,HULIANWANG、DASHUJU、ZENGCAIZHIZAO、SHENGWUGONGCHENG、XINNENGYUANLINGYUDETUPO,ZHENGZAIXINGCHENGXINDESHENGCHANFANGSHI、CHANYEXINGTAI、SHANGYEMOSHI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,MINCUIZHUYI、NIQUANQIUHUASICHAOFANLAN,和记国际备用域名DANBIANZHUYI、MAOYIBAOHUZHUYIDENGDUIJINGJIYINGXIANGYUJIAMINGXIAN,JINGJIFAZHANCUNZAIZHONGDUOJIYU,YEMIANLINGENGDUOQIANSUOWEIYOUDEYANJUNTIAOZHAN。

SUIZHEZHONGGUOJINGJIYOUGAOSUZENGZHANGJIEDUANZHUANXIANGGAOZHILIANGFAZHANJIEDUAN,GUONEISHICHANGDUIYOUSEJINSHUDENGDAZONGYUANCAILIAODEXUQIUYEYOUCHIXUZENGZHANGQIZHUANRU“WEIZENGZHANG”DEPINGTAIQI,“SHISANWU”QIJIAN,GUONEITONG、LVDENGZHUYAOYOUSEJINSHUXIAOFEIZENGZHANGSUDUYIJINGCHUXIANMINGXIANHUILUO。YUJIWEILAIHAIJIANGJINYIBUHUILUO。YUCITONGSHI,和记国际备用域名SHICHANGJINGZHENGRIQUJILIE,WEILAIWOGUOYOUSEJINSHUCHANPINCHUKOUKONGJIANJIANGBEIYANZHONGJIYA。ZAICIBEIJINGXIA,CHANYEJINYIBUSHENHUAGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGE,JIAKUAIZHUANXINGFAZHANDERENWUXIANDESHIFENJIANJU。

(一)消费增速明显回落

2015NIANDAO2019NIANQIJIAN,WOGUOJINGLIANTONGXIAOFEILIANGCONG985WANDUN,ZENGJIADAO1208WANDUN,JINGZENG223WANDUN,NIANJUNZENGZHANGLV5.2%,YUANDIYU2000NIANDAO2015NIANQIJIANNIANJUN12%DEZENGZHANGSUDU;DIANJIELVXIAOFEILIANGCONG3164WANDUN,ZENGJIADAO3590WANDUN,JINGZENG426WANDUN,NIANJUNZENGZHANGLV3.2%,YUANDIYU2000NIANDAO2015NIANQIJIANNIANJUN15%DEZENGZHANGSUDU。“SHISANWU”QIJIANWOGUOZHUYAOYOUSEJINSHUXIAOFEIBIANHUABIAOMING,GUONEIYOUSEJINSHUXUQIUKUAISUZENGZHANGDEJIEDUANYIJINGJIESHU。

(二)冶炼产能已超需求峰值

SUIZHEXIAOFEIZENGSUDEXIAJIANG,WOGUOZHUYAOYOUSEJINSHUXUQIUJIANGZAI“SHISIWU”QIJIANJINRUPINGTAIQI,BINGCHUXIANXIAOFEIFENGZHI。GENJUYOUGUANJIGOUFENXI,YUQIWOGUOJINGLIANTONGNIANXUQIULIANGFENGZHIZAI1400WANDUNZUOYOU,DIANJIELVNIANXUQIULIANGFENGZHIZAI4000WANDUNZUOYOU。GUONEIYIXINGCHENGDIANJIELVCHANNENG4400WANDUN/NIAN,YIJINGCHAOGUOFENGZHIXUYAO。

(三)战略性矿产资源保障能力严重不足

JINGUANGUONEIZHUYAOYOUSEJINSHUXUQIUKAISHIJINRU“WEIZENGZHANG”DEPINGTAIQI,DANTONG、LVKUANGCHANZIYUANGONGJIBUZUDEMAODUNYIRANTUCHU。SUIZHEBUFENSHENGCHANJIDIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKUJIE,TONG、LVDENGZHANLVEXINGKUANGCHANZIYUANANQUANXINGSHIYUFAYANZHONG。WOGUOLVTUKUANGDUIWAIYICUNDUYIJINGCHAOGUO50%,2019NIANJINKOULIANG1YIDUN,CHAOGUODANGNIANGUONEICHANLIANG。YOUYUGUONEIYIJINGMEIYOUKEGONGLIYONGDEDAIKAIFADAXINGLVTUKUANG,ZAIYUANYOUKUANGSHANJIDIZIYUANZHUJIANKUJIEDEBEIJINGXIA,YUJIWEILAIWOGUOLVTUKUANGDUIWAIYICUNDUHUICHIXUSHANGSHENG。

(四)扩大出口遭遇屏障

CHUWU、MU、XITUDENGSHAOSHUJINSHUWAI,GUONEIZHUYAOYOUSEJINSHUKUANGCHANZIYUANBINGFUPUBIANBUJIA。WOGUOSHISHIJIEZUIDADEYOUSEJINSHUCHANPINJINGJINKOUGUO。DANSHI,YOUYUGUONEIDIANJIELVCHANNENGYUANCHAOGUOXUQIU,ZHONGGUOYOUCHENGWEISHIJIEZUIDADELVCAICHUKOUGUO,2019NIANCHUKOULIANGDADAO515WANDUN,DAYUEZHANGUONEIDIANJIELVXIAOFEILIANGDE15%。CHUCIZHIWAI,HAIYOUDALIANGLVMENCHUANG、LVLUNGU、LVSANREQIDENGZHIPINCHUKOU。DANSHI,SUIZHEMAOYIBAOHUZHUYITAITOU,WOGUOLVCAI、LVZHIPINCHUKOUBUGUANSHIZAIFADAJINGJITI,HAISHIZAIXINXINGJINGJITI,DOUBUDUANSHOUDAODAYA,KUODACHUKOUYUELAIYUEKUNNAN。

“十四五”有色金属工业的主要任务

GENJUDUIWEILAIGUONEIWAIHONGGUANXINGSHIDEPANDUAN,“SHISIWU”QIJIANWOGUOYOUSEJINSHUGONGYEYAOSHIXIANGAOZHILIANGFAZHAN,XUYAOWANCHENGSIDARENWU。

(一)确保国家战略性矿产资源供给自主可控

WOGUOJINGJIFAZHANXUYAODEDADUOSHUYOUSEJINSHUZHANLVEXINGKUANGCHANZIYUANBUNENGKAOGUONEIMANZUXUYAO,ZAIDANGQIANRIQUYANJUNDE和记国际备用域名HUANJINGXIA,QUEBAOTONG、LV、NIEDENGZHANLVEXINGKUANGCHANZIYUANGONGJIANQUANYIJINGCHENGWEISHIGUANCHANYEFAZHANDEZHONGDAWENTI。“SHISIWU”QIJIAN,YOUSEJINSHUGONGYEXUYAOTONGCHOUGUONEIWAILIANGZHONGZIYUAN、LIANGGESHICHANG,ZAIJIANSHEGUONEIZIYUANJIDIDETONGSHI,YAOTONGGUO和记国际备用域名HEZUO,JIAKUAIJIANSHEWENDINGKEKAODEJINGWAIZIYUANJIDI,QUANMIANZENGQIANGFANGFANZHONGDAFENGXIANDENENGLI。

(二)突破技术瓶颈,发展关键材料,维护国家安全

YIMANZUGUOJIAZHONGDAGONGCHENGHEGAODUANZHUANGBEIDENGLINGYUZHONGDAXUQIUWEIDAOXIANG,WEIRAO“KABOZI”CAILIAOHEJISHUKAIZHANJISHUGONGGUAN,ZHENGQUQUANMIANTUPO,SHI“SHISIWU”QIJIANYOUSEJINSHUGONGYEDEZHONGYAORENWU。ZHONGDIANSHIDIANZIXINXI、HANGKONGHANGTIAN、HAIYANGGONGCHENG、SHENGWUGONGCHENG、XINNENGYUANDENGLINGYUDEGUANJIANCAILIAOKAIFA,YIJIYANJIUKAIFAXIAYIDAIZHANLVECAILIAOHEDIANFUXINGJISHU,ZHENGQUZHANJUWEILAI和记国际备用域名JINGZHENGDEZHIGAODIAN。

(三)适应消费升级需要,着力扩大有色金属应用

GENJUDUIGUONEIWAIJINGJIXINGSHIDEPANDUAN,WOGUOYAOSHIXIANJINGJIDECHIXUFAZHAN,JIUBIXUTUIDONGGUONEIXIAOFEISHENGJI,ZOUYIGUONEIDAXUNHUANWEIZHUTI、GUONEI和记国际备用域名SHUANGXUNHUANXIANGHUCUJINDEDAOLU。ZHELIKUODAYOUSEJINSHUYINGYONG,JIUSHIYOUSEXINGYECUJINGUONEIXIAOFEISHENGJIDEYIGEZHONGDAJUCUO。GUOQUJINIAN,WOGUOJIANZHULVMOBAN、LVJIEGOUQICHE、LVJIAJUCHANPINDENGKAIFAYIJINGQUDEZHONGYAOJINZHAN,DANZHEIJINSHIYIGEKAISHI,HAIYOUGENGDUOLINGYUXUYAOKAITUO。ZHIYAOJIANCHIBUXIEDITUOZHANGUONEIYINGYONG,RENPING和记国际备用域名FENGYUNBIANHUAN,CHANYEYEKEYICONGRONGYINGDUI,LIYUBUBAIZHIDI。

(四)坚持供给侧结构性改革,控制产能规模非理性扩张

ZHENDUIYELIANCUNLIANGCHANNENGYIJINGCHAOGUOXUQIUFENGZHIZHEIYIZHUANZHEXINGBIANHUA,“SHISIWU”QIJIAN,YOUSEJINSHUCHANYEYAOJIXUJIANCHIBINGQIANGHUAGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGE,CONGCHANYEZHENGCEDEDIAOZHENGWANSHANRUSHOU,QUBIEQINGKUANG,CAIQUCUOSHI,JIAQIANGYINDAO,YIZHIFEILIXINGTOUZI,KONGZHIXIANGGUANLINGYUKUOGUIKUONENG,YOUHUABUJU,BIMIANCHANNENGYANZHONGGUOSHENG。YAOZHELIJIAQIANGCHUANTONGCHANYEJISHUGAIZAO,QIANGHUAJIENENGJIANPAI,CUJINLVSE、ZHINENG、DITANFAZHAN。(ZHIZHIBANJIAN《ZHONGGUOTOUZI》9YUEHAO)




 
var _hmt = _hmt || []; (function() { var hm = document.createElement("script"); hm.src = "https://hm.baidu.com/hm.js?78ebdacae9da971faf025645ab77d367"; var s = document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(hm, s); })();