和记国际备用域名

中咨视界

赵颖君 | 我国发展人工智能面临三方面挑战及其建议
发布日期:2020-09-18 信息来源:中咨研究 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

RENGONGZHINENG(AI)DEFAZHANYIDA60YUNIAN,SHEJIFANWEIFEICHANGGUANGFAN,YONGYOUBIYIBANKEJILINGYUGENGFUZA、GENGFENGFUDENEIHAN。XIANJIEDUANRENGONGZHINENGJISHUYANJIUJIANGWEIRAOSUANFA、KUANGJIARUANJIAN、XINPIANSANGEFANGMIAN。WEILAISHINIANSHIRENGONGZHINENGCHANYEFAZHANDEZHONGYAOSHIQI,YESHIRENGONGZHINENGXINPIANJISHUTUPODEGUANJIANSHIQI,YUANQIRENGONGZHINENGJISHUDEFAZHANLUJINGJIANGHUIYANZHESUANFA、SUANLILIANGTIAOZHUXIANXIANGQIANFAZHAN,BINGZHUBUDAILINGRENLEIJINRUDAORENJIXIETONGSHIDAI。FAZHANRENGONGZHINENGDEZUIZHONGMUBIAOBINGBUSHIYAOTIDAIRENLEIZHINENG,ERSHIYAOYURENLEIZHINENGXINGCHENGHUBU,SHIDERENLEICONGFANZHONGDEZHONGFUXINGGONGZUOZHONGJIEFANGCHULAI,CONGERZHUANZHUYUTUIDONGRENLEIZISHENWENMINGDEJINBU。

一、我国发展人工智能面临三方面挑战

WOGUOFAZHANRENGONGZHINENGDANGQIANMIANLINDETIAOZHANZHUYAOZAIAISUANFA、AIKUANGJIARUANJIANJIAIXINPIANSANGEFANGMIAN,XIANGXILUNSHURUXIA。

(一)AI算法

RENGONGZHINENGJISHUCHANGJIANDESUANFAJISHUYOUJUECESHU、SUIJISENLIN、LUOJIHUIGUI、ZHICHIXIANGLIANGJI、POSUBEIYESISUANFADENG,GUONEIGEDAGAOXIAOTUANDUIYIZHIYOUSHENRUYANJIU,DANSHIZAIKEYANCHENGGUOZHUANHUALINGYUYIZHIFAZHANHUANMAN,NANDIANZAIYURUHEJIANGSUANFAHESHIJIGONGCHENGYINGYONGJIEHE,SHIXIANJISHUXIANGSHENGCHANLIDEZHUANHUA。MUQIANYIHUAWEI、ALI、TENGXUNDENGGONGSIZHUDAODEJISHUYANFATUANDUI,JIANGZISHENYINGYONGHESUANFAJISHUJIEHE,CONGCHANYELINGYUSHIXIANSUANFADEJISHUCHENGGUOZHUANHUA。

DICENGSHUXUEKUDEYANJIUYIZHISHUYULENGMENXINGYE,YIFANGMIANYINWEIJISHUCHENGGUOZHUANHUABUYI,LINGYIFANGMIANYINWEIYANJIULINGYUXIAZHAI,GUONEIJINYOUSHAOSHUKEYANTUANDUIZHUANZHUYUCI。QIYELINGYU,ZHUYAOSHICHANGSHICONGDICENGYINGJIANKAIFAJIAODU,TONGGUOYOUHUASHUXUEKUSHIXIANYINGJIANXIAOLVZUIYOUHUADEFANGSHIJINXINGYANJIU,RUMEIGUONVIDIAGONGSIKAIFALEcuDNNDESHENDUXUEXIKU,SHIZHUANMENZHENDUIQICUDA GPUDEYOUHUA,DANSHIBINGMEIYOUDUIDAGUIMOJIQIXUEXICHANGJINGZHONGFENBUSHIBINGXINGDEZHICHI。MEIGUOIBM (PML)HEIntel (DistML)ZAIQIANXIENIANJUNKAIFALEJIQIXUEXI/SHENDUXUEXIXIANGGUANKUANGJIA、KUHEGONGJUJI,DANJUNXIANNEIBUSHIYONGHUOZHESHIJIANDANBANBENDEKAIYUAN。DatabricksGONGSIYISparkWEIHEXINKAIFAZHICHIJIQUNXUEXIXIANGGUANDEKU。JIYUKAIYUANRUANJIANCaffeKUOZHANLEJIYUMPIDEFENBUSHIBINGXINGSHIXIAN。CONGMIANXIANGSHICHANGDECHANPINJIAODUKAN,ZHEIXIEMUQIANHAICHUYUYANZHIJIEDUAN,XINGNENGHEWENDINGXINGGAISHANKONGJIANQIANLIJUDA。

SUANFALINGYUDEJISHUTUPO,WOGUOKEYANJIGOUHEQIYEDEGUANZHUDIANSHIBUYIYANGDE。KEYANLINGYUZHENDUIMUQIANDEYIYOUSUANFAJINXINGSHENDUYOUHUA,SHIXIANGENGHAODECHULIXIAOGUO,HUOZHELINGPIXIJING,DUIYUANYOUSUANFAJINXINGTUOTAIHUANGU。ERQIYEZEGENGDUOLIZUYUCHANYEFAZHANXUYAO,JIANGCHENGSHUDESUANFAYINGYONGDAOSHIJIDEGONGCHENGXIANGMUZHONG,SHIXIANRENGONGZHINENGCHANYEHUA。

(二)AI框架软件

GUONEIDEAIKUANGJIARUANJIANZHUJIANQIBU,YEKAISHIYONGBAOKAIYUAN,BINGZHENGZAIPEIYUZIJIDESHENGTAIHUANJING。KUANGJIARUANJIANSHIRENGONGZHINENGSHENGTAIZHONGZUIZHONGYAODEYINSUZHIYI,WOGUOXUYAOCUJINGUOCHANZIYANKUANGJIARUANJIANDEFAZHANHETUIGUANG,BAITUOGUOWAIDERUANJIANSHENGTAIBIAOZHUNZHIYUE。GUOCHANAIKUANGJIARUANJIANXUYAOHEGUOCHANAIXINPIANJIYINGJIANJINXINGXIANGHUSHIPEI、XINGNENGYOUHUAHEYINGYONGTUIGUANG,NENGGOUXINGCHENGMIANXIANGXINGYEYINGYONGDERUANYINGJIANYITIHUAPINGTAI,CUJINZHEIZHONGRONGHEJISHUZAIGEXINGYEDECHANYETUIGUANG。

1.AI框架软件

AIKUANGJIARUANJIANSHIXIANGGUANSUANFA、KU、GONGJUDEJIHE。AIKUANGJIARUANJIANDECHUXIANJIANGDILESHIYONGMENJIAN,KAIFARENYUANJIEZHUJISUANKUANGJIA,BUXUYAOCONGFUZADESHENJINGWANGLUOKAISHIBIANXIEDAIMA,KEYIYIJUXUYAO,SHIYONGYIYOUDEMOXING,KUAISUSHIXIANYINGYONG。KUANGJIARUANJIANTIGONGLEYIXILIEDEJIQIXUEXI、SHENDUXUEXIZUJIAN,QIZHONG,TONGYONGDEAISUANFAYIJICHENGSHIXIAN,RUOXUYAOSHIYONGXINDESUANFAKEGENJUZIJIDEXUQIUQUDINGYI,RANHOUDIAOYONGSHENDUXUEXIKUANGJIADEHANSHUJIEKOUSHIYONGHUZIDINGYIDEXINSUANFA。SUIZHEZHEIXIEKAIYUANKUANGJIAZAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIDEGUANGFANSHIYONG,HULIANWANGJUTOUKAISHIZHUJIANZHANGKONGLERENGONGZHINENGDEYINGYONGSHENGTAI,XINGCHENGLEJIHUSUOYOUDEAIXINPIAN、XITONG、PINGTAIDOUXUYAOYUZHEIXIEZHULIUKUANGJIASHIPEIDEJUMIAN。AISUANFADESHENGCHANYUCHENGXUSHENGCHANBUTONG,SHIYIGEXITONGGONGCHENG,XUYAONENGGOUXIETONGYOUHUASHUJU、SUANFA、SUANLIDEPINGTAIJICHANPIN。SHENDUXUEXIDUISUANLIYOUJIAOGAOXUQIU,YINCIXIANGJICHUXIANLEYIXIEZHUANMENDEJISUANKUANGJIARUANJIANHEPINGTAI,RUGUGEDETensorFlow、BOKELIDAXUEDECaffe、FacebookDEPyTorch(JIYUTorchTUICHU)、WEIRUANDECNTK、YAMAXUNDEMXNet、BAIDUDEPaddlePaddleDENG。

2.国内AI框架软件主要研发厂商

GUONEIRENGONGZHINENGCHANYEYESHIDAMIANJICAIYONGGUOWAIYANFADEZHEIXIEKUANGJIARUANJIAN,ZIYANDEAIKUANGJIARUANJIANXIANGDUIBIJIAOXIAOZHONG,ZHUYAOJIZHONGZAICONGSHIAISUANFAYANJIUBIJIAOZAODEJIGEGONGSINEIBUSHIYONG,DANSHISUIZHEJISHUJINBU,ZHUJIANKAISHIJINRUSHIYONGHUANJIE,BINGKAIYUANFABU。GUONEIBIJIAOZHIMINGDEJIGEKUANGJIARUANJIANDEQINGKUANGRUXIA。

BAIDUFEIJIANGPaddlePaddle:SHIGUONEIKAIFAJIAOWEIWANSHANDEAIJISUANKUANGJIA,SHIJISHENDUXUEXIHEXINKUANGJIA、JICHUMOXINGKU、DUANDAODUANKAIFATAOJIAN、GONGJUZUJIANHEFUWUPINGTAIYUYITIDEKAIYUANSHENDUXUEXIPINGTAI。MUQIANBAIDUYOUCHAOGUO30GEZHUYAOCHANPINDOUZAISHIYONG PaddlePaddle,CONGSHICHANGJIESHOUCHENGDUPANDUAN,MUQIANHAICHUYUQIBUJIEDUAN,SHIYONGQUNTIXIANGDUIJIAOSHAO,HAIXUYAOJIADAYANFATOURUHESHICHANGPEIYANG。

KUANGSHIBrain++:YONGYOUZIZHUYANFASHENDUXUEXIKUANGJIA,ZIZHUYANFADEAISUANFAPINGTAIBrain++ZUOWEITONGYIDEDICENGJIAGOU,WEISUANFAXUNLIANJIMOXINGGAIJINGUOCHENGTIGONGZHONGYAOZHICHI。ZAISUANFAKAIFAFANGMIAN,KUANGSHIZIYANKAIYUANSHENDUXUEXIKUANGJIAMegEngine(Brain++HEXINZUJIANZHIYI),Brain++BANGZHUKUANGSHIGOUJIANLEYITIAOBUDUANZIWOGAIJIN、BUDUANGENGJIAZIDONGHUADESUANFASHENGCHANXIAN,BINGNENGGOUZHENDUIBUTONGCHUIZHILINGYUDESUIPIANHUAXUQIUDINGZHIFENGFUQIEBUDUANZENGZHANGDESUANFAZUHE。

SHANGTANGParrots:SHIYIGEXUNLIANKUANGJIA,HEXINSHIYIGEDONGTAIDEBIANYIYUDIAODUYINQING,SHANGTANGParrotsCAIYONGDONGTAISHISHIBIANYIJISHU,SUOYOUDAIMADOUSHIZAIYUNXINGGUOCHENGDANGZHONGJISHIBIANYI,BINGQIEFANGDAOJISUANXINPIANHUOYINQINGSHANGDAGUIMODIBINGXINGZHIXING。JUBEILECHUANTONGJINGTAISHENDUWANGLUODESHENSUOXING,YIJIDANGDAIDONGTAIBIANCHENGMOXINGDELINGHUOXING,DADAOLEZHEILIANGZHEDEZUIJIAJIEHE。

HUAWEIMindSpore:JISUANKUANGJIAYIJINGZHENGSHIKAIYUAN。MindSporeYUANSHENGSHIYINGMEIGECHANGJINGBAOKUODUAN、BIANYUANHEYUN。TONGGUOMindSporeZISHENDEJISHUCHUANGXINJIMindSporeYUHUAWEISHENGTENGAIXINPIANDEXIETONGYOUHUA,SHIXIANYUNXINGTAIDEGAOXIAO,DADATIGAOLEJISUANXINGNENG。

(三)AI芯片

ZAOZAISHANGSHIJI80NIANDAI,XUESHUJIEJIUTICHULEXIANGDANGWANSHANDEAISUANFAMOXING,DANZHIDAOJINXIENIAN,MOXINGDENEIZAIJIAZHIYEMEIYOUBEIZHENZHENGSHIXIANGUO,ZHEIZHUYAOSHISHOUXIANYUYINGJIANSHUIPINGNANYITIGONGKEYIZHICHENGSHENDUSHENJINGWANGLUOXUNLIAN/TUILIGUOCHENGSUOXUYAODESUANLI。AIXINPIANDECHUXIANXIANZHUTIGAOLESHUJUCHULISUDU,YOUQIZAICHULIHAILIANGSHUJUSHIMINGXIANYOUYUCHUANTONGCPU。YIBANJIANGAIXINPIANDINGYIWEI“ZHUANMENZHENDUIAISUANFAZUOLETESHUJIASUSHEJIDEXINPIAN”,GENJUJISHUTIXIJIEGOU,ZHUYAOFENWEIGPU、FPGA、ASICHELEINAOXINPIANSIDALEI。AIXINPIANZAIBIANYUANJISUANZHONGSHITIGONGSUANLIDELINGHUNHEDANAO,CHENGZAILEWEIGEZHONGZHONGDUANTIGONGQIANGDASUANLIDEZHONGYAORENWU,ZHIDAOJINNIAN,GPU、FPGA、ASICDENGAIXINPIANBEITOURUDAOXIANGGUANLINGYUYINGYONG,CAIJIEJUELESUANLIBUZUDEWENTI。

1.基于技术架构分类的AI芯片

(1)GPU

GPU(Graphics Processing Unit,TUXINGCHULIQI),SHILIYONGCHULITUXINGRENWUDETUXINGCHULIQILAIJISUANYUANBENYOUZHONGYANGCHULIQICHULIDETONGYONGJISUANRENWU。GPUJINGGUODUONIANDESHENGTAIFAZHAN,YIJINGDUIJIQIXUEXI、SHENDUXUEXILEIYINGYONGJUYOULIANGHAODEJIANRONGXING,TONGYONGXINGQIANG、JINGDUZHICHILINGHUO、XINGNENGCHUZHONG。GPUMIANDUIDEZESHILEIXINGGAODUTONGYIDE、XIANGHUWUYILAIDEDAGUIMOSHUJUHEBUXUYAOBEIDADUANDECHUNJINGDEJISUANHUANJING。GPUDEGUANJIANXINGNENGSHIBINGXINGJISUAN,ZHULIUDEGPUJUYOUQIANGDADEJISUANNENGLIHENEICUNDAIKUAN,WULUNXINGNENGHAISHINEICUNDAIKUAN,JUNYUANDAYUTONGDAIDECPU。CPU YOUZHUANWEISHUNXUCHUANXINGCHULIERYOUHUADEJIGEHEXINZUCHENG,ER GPU ZEYONGYOUYIGEYOUSHUYIQIANJIDEGENGXIAO、GENGGAOXIAODEHEXIN(ZHUANWEITONGSHICHULIDUOZHONGRENWUERSHEJI)ZUCHENGDEDAGUIMOBINGXINGJISUANJIAGOU。TONGSHICPUXIANGDANGYIBUFENSHIJIANZAIZHIXINGWAISHEDEZHONGDUAN、JINCHENGDEQIEHUANDENGRENWU,ERGPUYOUGENGDUODESHIJIANBINGXINGJISUAN。

(2)FPGA

FPGA(Field Programma-ble Gate Array,XIANCHANGKEBIANCHENGMENZHENLIE),ZUOWEIYIZHONGBANDINGZHIDIANLU,HANYOUSHUZIGUANLIMOKUAI、NEIQIANSHIDANYUAN、SHUCHUDANYUANYIJISHURUDANYUANDENG,DUIYUTEDINGYUNSUAN,KEYITONGGUOBIANCHENGZHONGZUDIANLU,ZHIJIESHENGCHENGZHUANYONGDIANLU,YONGHUKEYITONGGUO FPGA PEIZHIWENJIANLAISHIXIANYINGYONGCHANGJINGDEGAODUDINGZHI,KETONGSHIJINXINGSHUJUBINGXINGHERENWUBINGXINGJISUAN,JINERSHIXIANGAOXINGNENG、DIGONGHAO。FPGAYICIXINGCHENGBENYUANDIYUASIC,ZAIXINPIANXUQIUHAIWEICHENGGUIMO、SHENDUXUEXISUANFAZANWEIWENDING,RENGXUBUDUANDIEDAIGAIJINDEQINGKUANGXIA,LIYONGFPGAJUYOUKEZHONGGOUDETEXINGLAISHIXIANBANDINGZHIDEAIXINPIANSHIZUIJIAXUANZEZHIYI。FPGAKEYIMIANXIANGQIANDUANTUILICHANGJINGLINGHUOSHEDINGGONGNENG,MUQIANZAIRENGONGZHINENGTUILISHICHANGYINGYONGGUANGFAN。

(3)ASIC

ASIC(Application Specific Integrated Circuits,ZHUANYONGJICHENGDIANLU),SHIZHIYINGTEDINGYONGHUYAOQIUHETEDINGDIANZIXITONGDEXUYAOERSHEJI、ZHIZAODEJICHENGDIANLU。ASICXINPIANKEYIMIANXIANGYIXIECHENGSHUHUOTEDINGDESHENDUXUEXISUANFA,DINGZHIDIANLUHEZHUANYONGZHILINGJI,SHIXIAOLVHENENGXIAOBIDADAOZUIYOU。DANGQIANASICXINPIANZHUYAOMIANXIANGRENGONGZHINENGTUILIYINGYONGCHANGJING。ZHENDUITEDINGYONGHUCHANGJINGSHIYONGFPGA JINXINGYANFA,DANGSUANFACHENGSHU、XINPIANSHEJIGUDINGHOUZAIYIASIC DEFANGSHIJINXINGDAGUIMOSHENGCHAN,ZHENDUISHIYONGYINGYONGCHANGJING,ASICDEXINGNENGHENENGHAODOUYAOYOUYUSHICHANGSHANGDEXIANYOUXINPIAN,BAOKUO FPGA HE GPU。

TPU(ZHANGLIANGCHULIDANYUAN,Tensor Processing Units),SHIYIZHONGDINGZHIHUADEASICXINPIAN,TPUDEDANPIANCUNCHUQIRONGLIANGSHINVIDIA K80 GPUDE3.5BEI,DANSHITADETIJIXIANGDUIGENGXIAO。GUGETPUYIWEIGUGEDEZHUYAOCHANPINTIGONGLEJISUANZHICHI,DIYIDAI TPU JINNENGYONGYUTUILI,ERMUQIANFABUDE TPU2.0 JIKEYIYONGYUTUILI,YOUKEYIYONGYUXUNLIANSHENJINGWANGLUO。

(4)类脑芯片

LEINAOXINPIAN(Brain-Inspired Chip),KEMONIRENLEIDANAOXINXICHULIFANGSHI,NENGYIJIDIDEGONGHAODUIXINXIJINXINGYIBU、BINGXING、DISUHEFENBUSHICHULI,BINGJUBEIZIZHUGANZHI、SHIBIEHEXUEXIDENGDUOZHONGNENGLI,SHIZHINENGGOUZAITUILI、JUECE、JIYIDENGFANGMIANDADAOLEIRENZHINENGSHUIPING。LEINAOXINPIANBASHUZICHULIQIDANGZUOSHENJINGYUAN,BANEICUNZUOWEITUCHU,GENCHUANTONGFENGNUOYIMANJIEGOUBUYIYANG,TADENEICUN、CPUHETONGXINBUJIANSHIWANQUANJICHENGZAIYIQI。YINCIXINXIDECHULIWANQUANZAIBENDIJINXING,ERQIEYOUYUBENDICHULIDESHUJULIANGBINGBUDA,CHUANTONGJISUANJINEICUNYUCPUZHIJIANDEPINGJINGBUFUCUNZAI。

LEINAOZHINENGJIEJIANDANAOZHONG“NEICUNYUJISUANDANYUANHEYI”DENGXINXICHULIDEJIBENGUILV,ZAIYINGJIANSHIXIANYURUANJIANSUANFADENGDUOGECENGMIAN,DUIYUXIANYOUDEJISUANTIXIYUXITONGZUOCHUBENZHIDEBIANGE,BINGSHIXIANZAIJISUANNENGHAO、JISUANNENGLIYUJISUANXIAOLVDENGFANGMIANDEDAFUGAIJIN。IBMYIJINGKAISHIJINXINGDIANFUFENG·NUOYIMANTIXIJIEGOUDELEINAOZHINENGSUANFAYUJISHUDETANSUO,BINGYICHENGGONGYANZHICHUTrueNorthXINPIAN。

2.AI芯片特征对照及国内外主要研制厂商

BUTONGLEIXINGDEXINPIANZAITONGYONGXING、YINGYONGJIANRONGXING、BIANCHENGNANDU、XINGNENG、NENGXIAOBIDENGFANGMIANJUYOUGEZIDEYOUQUEDIAN,SHIYONGYUXUNLIAN、TUILIDENGBUTONGDEYINGYONGCHANGJING。BUTONGLEIXINGAIXINPIANDETEZHENGHEYOUQUEDIANRUBIAO1SUOSHI。

表1 不同类型AI芯片的特征和优缺点

DANGQIAN,AIXINPIANDEHEXINJISHUHESHICHANGBEIMEIGUOCHANGSHANGLONGDUAN,SUIRANGUONEIYIXIECHANGSHANGYEZAIJINXINGAIXINPIANYANZHI,DANWULUNSHIJISHUCHENGSHUDUHAISHISHICHANGZHANYOULVDENGFANGMIAN,YU和记国际备用域名JUTOUDECHAJURENGRANFEICHANGMINGXIAN。AIXINPIANGUONEIWAIZHUYAOYANZHICHANGSHANGRUBIAO2SUOSHI。

表2 AI芯片国内外主要研制厂商

GPU:PINGJIEGPUZAIDANGQIANRENGONGZHINENGSHICHANGDEZHUDAODIWEI,NVIDIAZAIAIXINPIANSHICHANGYIJIADUDA。AMDXINFABUDEGPUCHANPINYIJINGSHIXIANLEDUIZHULIUAIKUANGJIARUANJIANDELIANGHAOZHICHI,SHANGSHENGSHITOUMINGXIAN。IntelYEZHENGZAIJINXINGGPUYANFA。ZAIGUONEI,MUQIANHAIGUANGGONGSIZHENGZAIANJINDUTUIJINLEIGPU(DPU)XINPIANYANZHI,MUQIANYIJINGQUDEJIEDUANXINGJINZHAN。

FPGA:SHICHANGFENEPAIMINGDIERDEAIXINPIANFPGA,DANGQIANWANQUANBEIMEIGUODELIANGJIAGONGSIXilinxHEIntel(SHOUGOUDEAltera)SUOLONGDUAN,QUANQIUSHICHANGZHANYOULVDA90%。MUQIANGUONEICONGSHIFPGAXINPIANYANFADECHANGSHANGYOUZIGUANGTONGCHUANG(Titan)、FUDANWEIDIANZIDENGQIYE,QIFPGACHANPINXIANGBIMEIGUOCHANGSHANGLUOHOUYIDAI,QIECHANPINXINGNENGZHINENGDADAOGUOWAIPINPAISHANGYIDAITONGXILIECHANPINDEZHONGGAODUANSHUIPING,SHANGBUJUBEIKEKANGHENGSHILI。

ASIC:GUONEIDUOCAIYONGASICXINPIANJIAGOUJINXINGCHUANGXIN,ASICXINPIANXIANGBIGUOWAICHANGSHANGCHAJUXIANGDUIJIAOXIAO,TEBIESHIZAIXINPIANBENSHENDEXINGNENGHENENGXIAOBIFANGMIAN,ERZAIGAOXINGNENG GPU HE FPGA XINPIANLINGYUYANFAXIANGDUIZHIHOU。RUHANWUJIDENGDEASICXINPIANYIXINGCHENGLELIANGCHANCHANPIN。DANXIANGBIGUOWAIJUTOURENGRANCUNZAIYIXIEXIANTIANCHAJU,RUGoogleYANZHIDETPU,KEYIHEZIJIYANFABINGKAIYUANDEZHULIUSHENDUXUEXIKUANGJIATensor FlowJINXINGSHENRUZHENGHEHEYOUHUA,YOURUANJIANSHENGTAIDEJIACHI,JIANGJUYOUGENGHAODESHENGCUNYOUSHI。

二、我国发展人工智能的三个建议

(一)打造我国人工智能软硬件产业生态

PCSHIDAIDEWintelTIXI(WEIRUAN+Intel),YIJIYIDONGZHONGDUANSHIDAIDEAATIXI(ARM + Android),DOUSHITONGGUODAZAOWANZHENGDECHANYESHENGTAILAIBAKONGCHANYEDEZHUDAOQUAN,BINGQIECHUYUJUEDUIDEXINGYELONGDUANDIWEI。RENGONGZHINENGCHANYESHUYUXINXINGLINGYU,MUQIANSHANGWEIXINGCHENGJUEDUIZHUDAODEJISHULUJINGYILAI,CHANYESHENGTAIYEMEIYOUXINGCHENGJUEDUIDEBILEI,RUANYINGJIANXIETONGYOUHUAYICHENGWEITISHENGJISHUDEZHUYAOSHOUDUAN,DANCHUNDESHUJUYUSUANFAYOUHUAYIBUNENGMANZUCHANYEFAZHANXUQIU。

MIANDUIZHEIYIFAZHANQIJI,WOGUOYINGQIANGHUARENGONGZHINENGCHANYEFAZHANDINGCENGSHEJI,JIAQIANGRENGONGZHINENGRUANYINGJIANXIETONGBUJU,RU,GULIBAIDUFEIJIANGPaddle Paddle、KUANGSHI、SHANGTANGParrots、HUAWEIMind SporeDENGRUANJIANKUANGJIAQIYE,YUHANWUJI(MLU)、HUAWEI(SHENGTENG)、ALI(HANGUANG)、ZHONGXINGWEI(NPU)、BITEDALU(SUANFENG)、DIPINGXIAN、BAIDU(KUNLUN)、HAIGUANG(DPU)、ZIGUANGTONGCHUANG(Titan)、FUDANWEIDIANZIDENGAIXINPIANQIYEQIANGQIANGLIANHE,ZHONGDIANBUJUWOGUOZIZHUZHISHICHANQUANDE“KUANGJIARUANJIAN+AIXINPIAN”DERENGONGZHINENGSHENGTAITIXI,LIZHENGWUNIANNEIZAIRENGONGZHINENGLINGYUZHANJUZHUDAOYOUSHI。

(二)采取全面布局、分步突破的芯片发展路径

AIXINPIANDEHEXINJISHUHESHICHANGJUNCHUYUBEIMEIGUOCHANGSHANGLONGDUANDEZHUANGTAI,SUIRANGUONEIYIXIECHANGSHANGYEZAIJINXINGAIXINPIANYANZHI,DANWULUNSHIJISHUCHENGSHUDUHAISHISHICHANGZHANYOULVFANGMIAN,YU和记国际备用域名JUTOUDECHAJURENGRANFEICHANGMINGXIAN。MUQIANLAIKANWOGUOGPUJIFPGAJIBENWANQUANYILAIJINKOU。GPUFANGMIANQUANQIU70%DESHICHANGDOUBEINVIDIAZHANJU。FPGACHENGXIANGUATOULONGDUANDEJINGZHENGGEJU,MEIGUOLIANGJIAGONGSIXilinxHEIntel(SHOUGOUDEAltera)SUOLONGDUAN,QUANQIUSHICHANGZHANYOULVDADAO90%。SANKUANAIXINPIANZONGTILAIKAN,ASICGUOCHANHUACHENGDUXIANGDUIJIAOHAO。

YINCI,XIANJIEDUANZHENDUIWOGUOAIXINPIANDEXIANSHIQINGKUANG,KECAIQUQUANMIANBUJU、FENBUTUPODEFAZHANLUJING,JINQIZHONGDIANTUPOZHUANYONGXINPIANASIC,YUANQIYICITUPOGPU、FPGADENGTONGYONGXINPIAN。YOUYUASICZHUANYONGXINGJIAOQIANG,BUTONGCHANGSHANGWANGWANGHUIGENJUTEDINGDEYINGYONGCHANGJINGXUQIUJINXINGYOUZHENDUIXINGDEYANFA,ERGPU、FPGADENGTONGYONGXINPIANYOUYUMUQIANGUOWAIYOUJIAOWEICHENGSHUDEBIAOZHUNHUACHANPIN,GUONEICHANGSHANGZIZHUYANFAHUOGUOCHANHUATIDAIDEYIYUANBINGBUQIANGLIE。YINCICONGCHANYEBUJUJIAODULAIKAN,ZHENGFUYINGJIADALIDUZHULIYOUTIAOJIANYOUYIYUANDEQIYE,ZAIGPU、FPGADENGTONGYONGXINPIANYANZHIFANGMIANTOURUJINGLISHIXIANFENBUTUPO。

(三)加强类脑芯片等前沿领域的布局

LEINAOXINPIANYANFALINGYUSHUYUQIANZHANXINGLINGYU,MUQIANQIYEZAICIFANGMIANBINGBUHUIGUODUOSHEJI,YINCIYINGCHONGFENFAHUIGUONEIGAOXIAOYIJIKEYANYUANSUOLILIANGJINXINGCHONGFENBUJU。MUQIAN,IBMYANZHIDETrueNorthXINPIANZUOWEILEINAOJISUANLINGYUDETUPOXINGJINZHAN,JIDADITUIJINLERENGONGZHINENGDEFAZHAN,DANLEINAOJISUANRENGCUNZAIHENDADEFAZHANKONGJIAN。SUIZHECUNCHU、LUOJI、CHUANGANJISHUDEGAIJIN,JIANGLAILEINAOJISUANXINPIANYOUWANGDADAOGENGDINENGHAO、GENGJINCOUJIEGOUHEGENGKUAISUDU。

WOGUOZHENDUILEINAOXINPIANDEYANJIUSHANGCHUYULILUNJIEDUAN,和记国际备用域名LONGTOUQIYEHAIMEIYOUXINGCHENGMINGQUEDEJISHUJIZHISHICHANQUANBILEI,YINCIQUANQIUKEJICHANYEJUTOUDOUZAIJIJITUIDONGRENGONGZHINENGJISHUSHENGTAIDEYANFABUJU,QUANLIQIANGZHANRENGONGZHINENGCHANYEDEZHIGAODIANHEHUAYUQUAN。

三、结语

RENMENDUIRENGONGZHINENGDEQIWANG,JUEBUJINYONGLAIJIEJUEXIAZHAIDE、TEDINGLINGYUDEMOUGEJIANDANJUTIDEXIAORENWU,ERSHIQIWANGNENGGOUZHENZHENGXIANGRENLEIYIYANG,JIEJUEBUTONGLINGYU、BUTONGLEIXINGDEFUZAWENTI,BINGJINXINGPANDUANHEJUECE。

FAZHANRENGONGZHINENGDEZHONGJIMUBIAOYEBUSHIYAOTIDAIRENLEIZHINENG,ERSHIYAOYURENLEIZHINENGXINGCHENGYOUSHIHUBU,BANGZHURENLEICHULIXUDUOSUIRANNENGGOUCHULIDANXIAOLVBUGOUGAODEGONGZUO,SHIDERENLEICONGFANZHONGDEZHONGFUXINGGONGZUOZHONGJIEFANGCHULAI,CONGERZHUANZHUYUTUIDONGRENLEIZISHENWENMINGDEJINBU。

参考文献

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[2] 王焕宁.人工智能芯片国产化路径浅析[J].科学技术创新,2019(07).

[3] 田雨晨.FPGA芯片设计及其应用[J].数字通信世界,2019(04).

[4] 谭铁牛.人工智能的历史、现状和未来[J].智慧中国,2019(03).

[5] 魏少军.发展人工智能芯片中国还缺什么?[J].中国集成电路,2017(08).

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