和记国际备用域名

中咨视界

杨凯越 | 和记国际备用域名智库成果特点及对中国特色新型智库发展建议
发布日期:2020-09-15 作者:杨凯越 信息来源:中咨研究 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

DANGJINSHIJIECHUYUBAINIANWEIYOUZHIDABIANJU,ZHIKUZUOWEILIANJIEZHUANYEZHIHUIYUGONGGONGZHENGCEDEQIAOLIANG,YICHENGWEIGUOJIAZHILIHEQUANQIUZHILIDEZHONGYAOZHICHENG。DUIBIWOGUOHEMEI、YING、YINDENGGUOZHIKUFAZHANQINGKUANG,KEYIFAXIANWOGUOZHIKUZHUTISHIYANJIUHEJIEDUANHUAYANJIUMINGXIAN,CHIXUGENZONGXINGYANJIUSHAO、XITONGHUAYANJIUSHAO。WEILAIWOGUOGUOJIAZHILITIXIKENENGZHUBUMAIRU“ZHENG、ZHI”YITIHUADEZHILIXINMOSHI,BANSUIWOGUO和记国际备用域名DIWEIHE和记国际备用域名HUAYUQUANDETISHENG,JIANYIWOGUOZHIKUJIEJIAN和记国际备用域名DINGJIZHIKUCHENGGUOXINGCHENGJINGYAN,ZAIFAZHANGUIHUACENGMIANHEYANJIUZHANWEICENGMIANNENGGOUYUSHIJUJIN,ZHUAZHUTIAOYUESHIFAZHANQIJI,SHIXIANWOGUOZHIKUZAIQUANQIUQUWEIDEGAOZHILIANGFAZHAN。

一 智库的内涵及其在政府决策中的地位

(YI)ZHIKUDENEIHAN

ZHIKU(Think Tank),GUMINGSIYI,SHIZHIHUILILIANG、ZHIHUIZIYUANDEJIJIE。ZAIXIANDAISHEHUI,ZHIKUSHIJUECEZHEJIJUECEJIGOUDEZHINANGTUANHESIXIANGKU。MEIGUOWAIJIAOGUANXIWEIYUANHUIZHUXILICHADE•HASIJIANGZHIKUDEZHINENGGAIKUOWEIWUGEFANGMIAN:SHENGCHANLINIAN(Idea Factory)、GONGJIRENCAI(Providing Talent)、MOUQIUGONGSHI(Convening Professionals)、JIAOYUGONGZHONG(Engaging the Public)HECHONGDANGZHENGFUWAIJIAODE“DIERQUDAO”(Bridging Differences)。

YINGXIANGLISHIZHIKUDESHENGMINGLIZHISUOZAI,SHIZHIKULAIYISHENGCUNHEFAZHANDEHEXINJINGZHENGLI。ZHIKUYIBANYIZHENGCEYANJIUWEINEIHE,TONGGUONEIBUHUOGONGKAIQUDAO,WEIZHENGFUTIGONGZHENGZHI、JINGJI、SHEHUI、KEXUE、JISHUDENGDUOLINGYUZHUANYEZIXUNJIANYI,CHANSHENGYINGXIANGLI。ZUOWEIDULIYUZHENGFUZHIWAIDEDISANFANGJIGOU,ZHIKUJUBEIDEZHENGZHIZHINENGHEZHENGZHIYINGXIANGLICHENGWEIZHIKULISHENZHIBEN,YESHIZHIKUFAZHANDEZUIZHONGMUDE。

(ER)ZHIKUZAIZHENGFUJUECEZHONGDEDIWEI

ERSHIYISHIJIYILAI,JINRONGWEIJI、ZIRANZAIHAI、LIANGSHIWEIJI、JUNSHICHONGTU、MAOYIZHENGDUAN、XINGUANYIQINGDENGQUANQIUXINGZHILINANTIPINFA。BULUNCONGDUANQIHAISHICONGZHANGQILAIKAN,SHIJIEQUANLIJIEGOU、JINGJIJIEGOU、SHEHUIJIEGOUJUNZAIFASHENGJULIEBIANHUA,QUANQIUHUAFAZHANDEDUOYANGXING、FUZAXINGHEBUQUEDINGXINGBUDUANZENGJIA,DAOBIZHENGGEZHENGZHIXITONGXUNSUTUIJINGUOJIAZHILITIXIJIZHILINENGLIXIANDAIHUA、FAZHIHUA、ZHUANYEHUA。ZAICIGAIGEJINCHENGZHIZHONG,CANZHENG、YIZHENG、FUZHENG、WENZHENGDENGZHENGZHIHUODONGYANRANYIYUZHIKUDEZHILIZHICHIMIBUKEFEN。

SHIJIESHANGZUIZHUYAODESHEHUIXINGQUANLIYOUWUZHONG:ZHENGQUAN、FAQUAN、CAIQUAN、ZHIQUANHEDEQUAN。ZHENGQUANHEFAQUANSHIGUOJIAHEZHENGZHISUOFUYUDE,CAIQUANSHISHICHANGYUZIBENSUOFUYUDE,ZHIQUANQUJUEYUKEXUE(BAOKUOZIRANKEXUEHESHEHUIKEXUE)、XUESHUZHIDUHESHEHUILIXING,DEQUANZEQUJUEYUSHEHUIJIEGOU、DAODECHONGJINGHESHEHUIGANXING。QIZHONG,ZHENGQUANYONGYOUZHESHIZHENGFUYUGUANYUAN,SHUYUZHENGZHIXITONG;ZHIQUANYONGYOUZHEDEDIANXINGDAIBIAOSHIZHIKUYUZHUANJIA,SHUYUZHISHIXITONG。

YOUYUZHENGZHIXITONGBENSHENBINGBUJUBEIZHISHIXITONGDEZHUANYEJISHUCHUBEI,YINERZHENGZHIXITONGDEJUECEZHEXUYAOPEIBEIZHISHIXITONGDEZHISHISHENGCHANZHEZUOWEIWAIYUAN。

YIFANGMIAN,ZHIKUDAPOLEZHENGQUANHEZHIQUAN、ZHENGZHIXITONGHEZHISHIXITONGZHIJIANDEFANLI,YIZHIKUWEIQIAOLIANG,SHIDEJUECEBIANCHENGGENGWEILIXINGDEXINGWEI,YOUZHENGFUGUANYUANYUZHUANJIAXUEZHEGONGTONGWANCHENG。SHIXIANZHENGZHILIXINGYUJISHULIXINGDEWANMEIQIHE,SHIDE“ZHENG”YU“ZHI”DELIANXIYIJI“ZHILI”NENGLIYU“ZHILI”NENGLIDEJIEHEYUJIAJINMI,GUOJIAZHILITIXIZHUBUMAIRU“ZHENG、ZHI”YITIHUADEZHILIXINMOSHI。ZONGGUANSHIJIEGEGUOXIANDAIHUAFAZHANLICHENG,ZHIKUZAIGUOJIAZHILIZHONGYIZHIFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONG,BINGRIYICHENGWEIGUOJIAZHILITIXIBUKEHUOQUEDEZUCHENGBUFEN。

LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHIQUANDECHUXIAN,SHIZHISHANGTUIDONGLEJUECEYUZHIXINGDEFENLI,SHIYIZHONGDUIZHENGQUANDE“GAIGE”。ZAIZHENGCEZHIDING、ZHIXING、JIANDUZHENGGEGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHENGYUZHIDEJIEHEBINGBUJUNIYUYIGUANWEIZHU,YIZHUANJIAWEIFU,YOUSHISHENZHIYIZHUANJIAWEIZHU,GUANYUANWEIFU。LIRU,ZAI2020NIANCHUFASHENGDEXINGUANYIQING“ZHANYI”SHIQI,DABUFENJUECESHIYOUWEISHENGFANGYIHEQUANWEIDEYIXUEZHUANJIAZUOCHUDE,ZAIZHEIZHONGTESHUSHIQI,ZHUANJIADEQUANWEIHUIBEIWUXINGFANGDA,CHENGWEIZHENGCEZHIDINGDEZHIYINHEDAOXIANG。

 二 全球智库发展概况及其最新成果特点

(YI)QUANQIUZHIKUZONGLIANGJINNIANZENGZHANGQINGKUANG

MEIGUOBINXIFANIYADAXUEZHIKUYUGONGMINSHEHUIXIANGMUZU(TTCSP)BIANXIEDE《QUANQIUZHIKUBAOGAO》(Global Go To Think Tank Index Report),SUIRANPINGJIAFANGFAHEJIEGUOCUNZAIZHENGYI,DANYIZHIBEIRENWEISHIZUIQUANWEIDEQUANQIUZHIKUFAZHANBAOGAO。GENJU2020NIAN1YUEFABUDE《QUANQIUZHIKUBAOGAO2019》,DUIBI2015ZHI2019NIANFABUDEBAOGAO,QUANQIUZHIKU2014NIANZHI2019NIANDEPAIMINGFASHENGLEJIAODABIANDONG,RUBIAO1SUOSHI。

YOUMEIGUOBINXIFANIYADAXUEZHIKUYUGONGMINSHEHUIXIANGMUZU(TTCSP)BIANXIEDENIANDU《QUANQIUZHIKUBAOGAO》SUIRANZAIPINGJIAFANGFAHEJIEGUOSHANGYUELAIYUECHANSHENGZHENGYI,DANGENJUXIANGMUZUDUIQUANQIUZHIKUJIGOUJIANLIDESUOYINLAIKAN,QUANQIUZHIKU2008NIANSHI5465JIA,2019NIANSHI8248JIA,ZHENGZAIKUAISUZENGZHANG,ZHIKUBUJINZAIFADAGUOJIAYIWEISHUZHONGDUO,ERQIEZAIFAZHANZHONGGUOJIAYEYURIJUZENG。

表1 全球主要国家智库数量近年变化情况

来源:《全球智库报告》2014-2019。

CONGBIAO1KEYIKANCHU:

2014NIANZHI2017NIAN,MEIGUO、ZHONGGUO、YINGGUODEZHIKUSHULIANGYIZHIBAOCHIZAIQUANQIUQIANSAN。QIJIAN,MEIGUOZHIKUZONGLIANGZENGZHANG42JIA,ZENGZHANGLVDADAO2.3%;ZHONGGUOZENGZHANG83JIA,ZENGZHANG19.3%;YINGGUOZENGZHANG157JIA,ZENGZHANGLVGAODA54.7%。

2018NIANZHI2019NIANJIAN,MEIGUOZHIKUZONGLIANGMEIYOUBIANDONG,ZHONGGUOZHIKUZONGLIANGJIANSHAO5JIA,YINGGUOJIANSHAO123JIA。2018NIAN,YINDUZHIKUYIJUNTUQI,ZONGLIANGZENGZHANG73.7%,YOU293JIAZENGZHANGDAO509JIA,CHAOGUOZHONGGUOHEYINGGUO,YUEJUQUANQIUDIER。2018NIAN,AGENTING、ELUOSIDEZHIKUZONGLIANGYEBAOCHIJIAOKUAIZENGZHANG,ZENGZHANGLVFENBIEDADAO55.5%、108.7%。

(ER)MEIGUODINGJIANZHIKUJIQIYANJIUCHENGGUO

1.MEIGUODEQUANQIUZHIKUPAIMINGQINGKUANG

ZUOWEIQUANQIUZHIKUSHULIANGZUIDUODEGUOJIA,QUANQIUPAIMINGQIANSHIDEZHIKU,MEIGUOCHANGNIANZHANJU5-6GEXIWEI,DANJUTIZHIKUJIGOUMINGCHENGJIQIPAIXUYEZAIBIANHUA。

2014NIANMEIGUOJINRUQUANQIUZHIKUPAIMINGQIANSHIGONG6JIA,FENBIESHIBULUJINSIXUEHUI(DI1MING)、KANEIJIHEPINGJIJINHUI(DI3MING)、和记国际备用域名ZHANLVEYANJIUZHONGXIN(DI4MING)、LANDEGONGSI(DI7MING)、WAIJIAOGUANXIXUEHUI(DI8MING)、WUDELUO·WEIERXUN和记国际备用域名XUEZHEZHONGXIN(DI10MING)。

ZAI2019NIAN,MEIGUOJINRUQUANQIUZHIKUPAIMINGQIANSHIGONG5JIA,FENBIESHIKANEIJIHEPINGJIJINHUI(DI1MING)、和记国际备用域名ZHANLVEYANJIUZHONGXIN(DI4MING)、CHUANTONGJIJINHUI(DI8MING)、BIDESEN和记国际备用域名JINGJIYANJIUSUO(DI9MING)、WUDELUO·WEIERXUN和记国际备用域名XUEZHEZHONGXIN(DI10MING)。

2.MEIGUOQUANQIUDINGJIANZHIKUDEYANJIUCHENGGUO

MEIGUOQUANQIUDINGJIANZHIKUSHIMINGFUQISHIDEZHENGFUZHINANG,YECHANGBEICHENGWEIMEIGUODE“YINGZINEIGE”。ZHEIXIEZHIKUTONGGUO“XUANZHUANMEN”JIZHIWEIGELIAOCHUBEIRENCAI,DUIMEIGUOZHENGZHI、JINGJI、JUNSHI、WAIJIAODENGYIXILIEZHONGDAJUECEDEYINGXIANGJUZUQINGZHONG。LIRU,KANEIJIHEPINGJIJINHUIJINGCHANGWEIGONGHEDANGZHENGFUTIGONGZHONGDAJUECEDEZIXUNYIJIAN;ER和记国际备用域名ZHANLVEYANJIUZHONGXINZEWEIMINZHUDANGZHENGFUTIGONGZHILIZHICHIDENG。

BIAO2TONGJILEMEIGUOZAIQUANQIUPAIMINGQIANSHIDEWUJIADINGJIANZHIKUJIEZHI2020NIAN3YUEZHI5YUEDE10PIANZUIXINYANJIUCHENGGUO,MEIGUOZHIKUDEHUOYUECHENGDU、DUISHISHIDEFANYINGSUDU、DUIZHENGFUZHENGCEZHENBIANSHIBIDENENGLI,KEYIKUIJIANYIBAN。

 表2 美国顶尖智库2020年3月至5月的最新研究成果

(截至2020年5月19日)

来源:《全球智库报告2019(2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report)》,及各智库官网。

CONGYOUYINGXIANGLIDECHENGGUOFABIAOPINLVKAN,KANEIJI和记国际备用域名HEPINGJIJINHUI、和记国际备用域名ZHANLVEYANJIUZHONGXINHECHUANTONGJIJINHUIMEITIANFABU2-4PIANZHENGCEYANJIUHUOFENXIWENZHANG,QITA2JIADINGJIZHIKUYEJIBENWEICHIMEITIANFABU1-2PIANYANJIUCHENGGUODESUDU。

CONGCHENGGUOSHEJIDEGUANJIANCIKAN,5JIAZHIKUJINQIWENZHANGZHUYAOGUANZHUCOVID-19(XINGUANBINGDU)、ZHONGMEIGUANXI、WOGUOXIJINPINGZONGSHUJITICHUDEZHANLVEHEZHENGCE、MEIGUOTELANGPUZHENGFUZHENGCEDENG;BIAOTILIZHIJIECHUXIANDEJUTIGUOJIAHEDIQUBAOKUOMEIGUO(HUASHENGDUN)(5CI)、ZHONGGUO(BEIJING、TAIWAN)(4CI)、ELUOSI(3CI)、YINDU(3CI)、XULIYA(2CI)DENG19GEGUOJIAHEDIQU,JIANTU1。

MEIGUOZHIKUDEHUOYUEYUZHENGFUDEXINRENHEZHENGCEDEZHICHIMIBUKEFEN。ZAIDIYUFENBUSHANG,ZAIMEIGUOZHENGZHIZHONGXINHUASHENGDUNTEQU,ZHIKUSHULIANGDADAO408JIA,ZHANBIGAODA21.8%。ZHEIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGFANYINGLEZHIKUHEZHENGFUZHIJIANDEMIQIELIANXI,YEFANYINGLEZHIKUHEZHENGCEMINRUIXINGZHIJIANDEXIANGHUYAOQIU。ZAICAISHUIHEZHENGCEZHICHISHANG,MEIGUOZHENGFUGUIDINGZHIKUZIXUNFEIKEYINARUCHENGBEN,BUZHENGSUODESHUI;CHAOGUO100WANRENKOUDECHENGSHIYAOJIANLIQUYUFAZHANZONGHEZHIKU;ZHENGFUXINXIANGMUDESHISHI,YAOZAILIXIANG、LUNZHENG、TOUZI、YANSHOUDENGHUANJIECHUJUZIXUNBAOGAODENG。

(SAN)ZHONGGUODINGJIANZHIKUJIQIYANJIUCHENGGUO

1.ZHONGGUODEQUANQIUZHIKUPAIMINGQINGKUANG

ZUOWEISHIJIEDIERDAJINGJITI,ZHONGGUODEZHIKUSHULIANGJIBENBAOCHIZAIQUANQIUQIANSAN,DANZHIJINMEIYOUZHIKUJINRUQUANQIUQIANSHIDEPAIMING。

2014NIANWOGUOJINRUQUANQIUPAIMINGQIAN50DEZHIKUYOU4JIA,FENBIESHI:ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUAN(DI27MING)、ZHONGGUO和记国际备用域名WENTIYANJIUYUAN(DI36MING)、ZHONGGUOXIANDAI和记国际备用域名GUANXIYANJIUYUAN(DI40MING)HEGUOWUYUANFAZHANYANJIUZHONGXIN(DI48MING)。

2019NIAN,WOGUOJINRUQUANQIUPAIMINGQIAN50DEZHIKUJIANGZHI3JIA,FENBIESHI:ZHONGGUOXIANDAI和记国际备用域名GUANXIYANJIUYUAN(DI18MING)、ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUAN(DI38MING)HEZHONGGUO和记国际备用域名WENTIYANJIUYUAN(DI50MING)。

2.ZHONGGUOPAIMINGQIANWUZHIKUDEYANJIUCHENGGUO

BIAO3TONGJILE2020NIAN4YUEZHI5YUEZHONGGUOPAIMINGQIANWUZHIKUDE10PIANZUIXINYANJIUCHENGGUO。CONGFABIAOPINLVLAIKAN,WOGUOGUONEIDINGJIANZHIKUGONGKAIFABUZHENGCELEIYANJIUWENZHANGDEPINLVGEYOUBUTONG,NENGGOUBAOCHIPINGJUNMEITIANYIPIANHUOMEILIANGTIANYIPIAN;CONGGUANJIANCILAIKAN,WUJIAZHIKUZAIJINQIWENZHANGZHONG,ZHUYAOGUANZHUXINGUANYIQING、MEIGUOZHENGCEDUIWOGUOHEQUANQIUDEYINGXIANG、WOGUOJINGJIGAIGEFAZHAN、YUMEIYINEDENGGUOGUANXIDENGFANGMIANDEYANJIU;CHENGGUODEBIAOTIZHIJIECHUXIAN12GEGEGUOJIAHEDIQU:MEIGUO(9CI)、ELUOSI(4CI)、ZHONGGUO(7CI)、OUZHOU(3CI)、OUMENG、YINDU、YILANG、LAMEI、YATAIDIQU、ZHONGDONG、FEIZHOU、DONGBEIYADENG,QIFANWEIMINGXIANSHAOYUMEIGUOZHIKUYANJIUCHENGGUOSHEJIQUYU。

表3 中国排名前五智库2020年4月至5月的最新研究成果

来源:《全球智库报告2019(2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report)》以及各智库官网。

YUMEIGUOLEISI,ZHONGGUODEDINGJIANZHIKUDADUOWEIYUSHOUDOUBEIJING。GENJUZHONGGUOZHIKUSUOYIN(Chinese Think Tank Index,CTTI)GONGBUDESHUJU,ZAI2016NIANCTTISHOULUDE489JIAZHIKUZHONG,BEIJINGDIQURUWEIZHIKU173JIA,ZHIKUZONGLIANGJUQUANGUOZHISHOU,ZHANRUXUANJIGOUZONGSHUDE35.4%,SHANGHAI、JIANGSUZHIKUSHULIANGFENBIEWEILIEDIER、SANWEI。ZHI2019NIAN,CTTIGONGSHOULUZHIKU848JIA,HUABEIDIQUZHIKUSHULIANGZUIDUO,GONG305JIA,ZHANBI36%,HUADONGDIQUQICI,GONG227JIA,ZHANBI26.8%,HUAZHONGDIQU87JIA,ZHANBI10.3%。

(SI)YINGGUODINGJIANZHIKUJIQIYANJIUCHENGGUO

1.YINGGUODEQUANQIUZHIKUPAIMINGQINGKUANG

ZUOWEILAOPAIDEZIBENZHUYIGUOJIA,YINGGUOZHIKUSHULIANGZAI2018NIANZHIQIANYIZHIBAOCHIZAIQUANQIUDISANWEI,2018NIANHE2019NIANYINGGUOZHIKUYI321JIADEZONGSHUWEIJUSHIJIEDISI。2019NIANYINGGUOJINRUQUANQIUPAIMINGQIAN10DEZHIKUYOU2JIA,QIAN50DEZHIKUYOU4JIA,FENBIESHI:HUANGJIA和记国际备用域名SHIWUYANJIUSUO(DI6MING),和记国际备用域名ZHANLVEYANJIUSUO(DI7MING),和记国际备用域名TESHEZUZHI(DI40MING),JINGJIZHENGCEYANJIUZHONGXIN(DI46MING)。

2.YINGGUOPAIMINGQIANWUZHIKUDEYANJIUCHENGGUO

BIAO4TONGJILEYINGGUOPAIMINGQIANWUZHIKU2020NIAN1YUEZHI5YUEDE10PIANZUIXINYANJIUCHENGGUO。CONGGUANJIANCILAIKAN,YINGGUOWUJIAZHIKUZAIJINQIWENZHANGZHONG,ZHUYAOGUANZHUXINGUANYIQING、和记国际备用域名ZHENGCEHEZHANLVEYIJIRENQUANWENTI;CHENGGUOBIAOTIZHIJIECHUXIAN27GEJUTIGUOJIAHEDIQU,BAOKUOZHONGGUO(5CI)、MEIGUO(2CI)、RIBEN(2CI)、OUMENG/OUZHOU(2CI)、FEIZHOU(2CI)、KENNIYA(2CI)、HAIWANDIQU(2CI)、AIJI(2CI)、YINGGUO、ELUOSI、WUKELAN、XULIYA、MOLUOGE、TUNISI、CHAOXIAN、DEGUO、YINDUYANGDIQU、TAIPINGYANGDIQU、AISAIEBIYA、DONGNANYA、MAERTA、TANSANGNIYA、WEINEIRUILA、BAJISITAN、RUISHI(RINEIWA)、SUOMALI、YILANGDENG,SHEJIFANWEIBIMEIGUOZHIKUZUIXINYANJIUNEIRONGGENGWEIGUANGFAN。

表4 英国排名前三智库2020年1月至5月的最新研究成果(截至2020年5月25日)

来源:《全球智库报告2019(2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report)》,及各智库官网。

(WU)YINDUDINGJIANZHIKUJIQIYANJIUCHENGGUO

1.YINDUDEQUANQIUZHIKUPAIMINGQINGKUANG

YINDUZHIKUSHULIANGZAI2018NIANXUNSUZENGZHANG,2018NIANHE2019NIANYI509JIAZHIKUDEZONGSHUYUEJUSHIJIEDIERWEI。2019NIANYINDUJINRUQUANQIUPAIMINGQIAN50DEZHIKUYOU2JIA,FENBIESHI:GUANCHAJIAYANJIUJIJINHUI(DI27MING),GUOFANGYANJIUYUFENXIYANJIUSUO(DI41MING)。

2.YINDUPAIMINGQIANWUZHIKUDEYANJIUCHENGGUO

BIAO5TONGJIYINDUPAIMINGQIANWUZHIKU2019NIAN10YUEZHI2020NIAN5YUEDE10PIANZUIXINYANJIUCHENGGUO。YANJIUNEIRONGYIYINDUGUONEIDEJINGJISHEHUIFAZHAN、GUOFANG、WEISHENGJIAOYU、NONGYE,YIJIHEYINDUXIANGGUANDE和记国际备用域名GUANXIWEIZHU。

表5 印度排名前三智库2019年10月至2020年5月的最新研究成果

来源:《全球智库报告2019(2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report)》以及各智库官网。

LINGWAIZHIDEZHUYIDEYIGEXIANXIANGSHI,XIFANGGUOJIADEBUFENZHIKUZAIZHONGGUOHEYINDUDOUSHELILEFENBU,RUKANEIJI和记国际备用域名HEPINGJIJINHUI、BULUJINSIXUEHUIDENGZAIZHONGGUOSHELILEFENBU;BULUJINSIXUEHUIZAIYINDUSHELILEFENBU,QIYANJIUFANGXIANGZHUYAOJIZHONGYUYINDUDEJINGJIFAZHAN、WAIJIAOZHANLVE、SHEHUIWENTIDENG,JIANBIAO6。

表6 布鲁金斯学会(印度分部)2020年3-5月的最新研究成果

来源:《全球智库报告2019(2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report)》以及智库官网。

 三 我国智库发展模式的两大问题

(YI)WOGUOZHIKUFAZHANMOSHIDELIANGDATUCHUWENTI

WOGUOZHIKUDEFAZHANYIJINGSHOUDAOGUOJIADEGAODUZHONGSHI,DANBIXUZHENGSHIDANGQIANZHIKUFAZHANMOSHIMIANLINDELIANGDATUCHUWENTI。

1.ZHIKULEIXINGYISHIYEDANWEIWEIZHU,QUEFARUILIGAIGEFAZHANDENEIWAISHENGDONGLI

GENJU《QUANQIUZHIKUBAOGAO2019》,WOGUOGUONEIPAIMINGQIANWUDEZHIKU——ZHONGGUOXIANDAI和记国际备用域名GUANXIYANJIUYUAN、ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUAN、ZHONGGUO和记国际备用域名WENTIYANJIUYUAN、GUOWUYUANFAZHANYANJIUZHONGXIN、QUANQIUHUAZHIKUZHONG,QIAN4JIAWEISHIYEDANWEI,ZHANBIDADAO80%;QIZHONGQIANSANJIAZHIKUJINRUQUANQIUPAIMINGQIAN50DEFANCHOU,SHIYEDANWEIZHANBIDADAO100%。GENJUSHANGHAISHEHUIKEXUEYUANFABU《2019NIANZHONGGUOZHIKUBAOGAO》,MUQIANWOGUOZHIKULEIXINGZHUYAOFENWEIGUOJIADANGZHENGHUOKEYANYUANSUOZHIKU、DIFANGDANGZHENGZHIKU、DIFANGKEYANYUANSUOZHIKU、GAOXIAOZHIKU、SHEHUIZHIKU、QIYEZHIKU、JUNDUIZHIKU,ZHANBIFENBIEWEI15.3%、17.9%、18.3%、29.2%、11.2%、7.1%、1.0%,JI80.7%DEZHIKUSHIGUOJIAHUODIFANGSHIYEDANWEI。

YISHANGLIANGGEBILIFANYINGLEWOGUOYIZHONGGUOJIAHEDIFANGDANGZHENG、KEYANYUANSUOJIGAOXIAOZUOWEIZHENGFUZHINANGDEXIANSHIQINGKUANG,YEFANYINGLEWOGUOZHIKUYIZHONGGUOJIACAIZHENGZHICHI——“CAIZHENGZHICHIXINGZHIKU”WEIZHUDEXIANZHUANG。DUIBIMEIGUOZHIKU,QIDABUFENHUASHENGDUNTEQUDEZHIKUJUYOUDUOYANGHUADEZIJINLAIYUAN,PIRUZHENGFUZIZHUJINZHANBULUJINSIXUEHUI2017NIANDUYUSUANDE2%,ZHENGFUZIZHUYUEZHANWEIERXUNYUSUANDE1/3,CHUANTONGJIJINHUI、KATUOXUEHUI、MEIGUOJINBUZHONGXINDENGZEMEIYOUJIESHOURENHELIANBANGZIZHU。

2.ZHIKUYANJIUYIKETIWEIZHU,NANYICHANCHUGUONEIWAIYOUYINGXIANGDEZHONGBANGCHENGGUO

SUIRANWOGUOZHIKUYANJIUCHENGGUOYEHENFENGSHUO,JUYOUZHENGCECANKAOJIAZHI,DANCONGGUONEIPAIMINGQIANWUDEZHIKUDEYANJIUCHENGGUOKEYIKANCHU,WOGUOZHIKUYANJIUJUYOUZHUTISHIYANJIUHEJIEDUANHUAYANJIUDETEDIAN,CHIXUGENZONGXINGYANJIU、XITONGHUAYANJIUJIAOSHAO。YOUYUKETIYIBANWEITUOZIGECENGJIZHENGFUJIGOU,“GANYAN、DUOMOU、SHANDUAN”SANDIAN,ZHIKUWANGWANGZHINENGZUODAODIERDIAN“DUOMOU”。

CONGZHANWEIJIANG,WOGUOZHIKU,YOUQISHIGUONEIGAODUANZHIKU,ZHANWEIJIAOGAO,YIBANJUYOUJIAOWEIQIANZHANXINGDESHIYE,DANSHIBUKEBIMIANDIZAIDULIXINGDENGFANGMIANYOUSUOQUESHI。

CONGCHUANGXINJIAODUKAN,WOGUOZHIKUCHANSHULILUN、YINGYONGLILUNNENGLIQIANG,CHUANGXINLILUNNENGLIJIAORUO。YIJINGJIXUEWEILI,WOGUODEJINGJIXUELILUNHEJINGJIYANJIUZHIJINRENGRANSHICAIYONGXIFANGJINGJIXUEDEZHISHITIXI,ERWEINENGZHENZHENGZONGJIECHUFUHEZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYITESEDEJINGJIXUELILUNHETIXI,SHANGWEIZHENZHENGDAZAOCHU“DONGFANGJINGJIXUE”。

ZAIYANJIUREDIANFANGMIAN,WOGUODEZHIKUHAICHUYU“GENSUI”DEZHUANGTAI。GENSUIREDIANDEYUANYINYOUER:YISHIZHENGFUWEITUOKETISHIZHIKUYANJIUDELUOJIZHUZHOU。YOUZHENGFUWEITUODEKETI,JIYOUKENENGWEIRAOGAINIANDEZHENGCEREDIAN,ZHEIZHONGREDIANDEZHUIZONGWANGWANG“SHANGXINGXIAXIAO”,RONGYIZAOCHENGJIAODADEYANJIUZHONGFULVHEBUTONGCENGJICAIZHENGZIJINZAITONGYILINGYUSHENZHITONGYIKETIDEZHONGFUXINGZHICHU,DANRUGUOZIKAIKETIJINXINGYANJIU,ZEJIANGYOUZHIKUZIJICHENGDANYANJIUDEFEIYONG,ER“GUOYUCHAOQIAN”DEYANJIUWANGWANGBUYIDINGSHOUDAOZHONGSHI。ERSHIZHIKUDE“BAOSHOU”YANJIUGUANXINGSHIRAN。WOGUOZHIKUSHIFENJIANGJIU“ZHENGZHIZHENGQUE”,ZAIJIANYANXIANCEDECHENGGUOZHONGCHANGCHANGTOUZHESIPINGBAWENDEFENGGE。SIPINGBAWENDEYANJIU,SUIRANBURONGYISHUOCUOHUA,DANZAIGUONEIHE和记国际备用域名DEYINGXIANGLIBIRANSHIWEIRUODE。

(ER)WOGUOZHIKUFAZHANMOSHIDEKENENGYINGXIANG

DANGQIANZHIKUFAZHANMOSHIKENENGDAILAIZHENGMIANHEFUMIANDEYINGXIANG。

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FUMIANYINGXIANGYEKENENGBAOKUOLIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHIZAIXIANYOUZHIKUTIXIXIA,BUTONGCENGJI、BUTONGLEIXINGZHIKUDETONGZHIHUAYANJIUHETONGZHIHUAJINGZHENGJIAOWEIMINGXIAN,YANJIUFANWEIXIANGDUIOUMEIZHIKUXIANGDUIXIAXIAO,YANJIUCHENGGUOYINGXIANGYOUXIAN;ERSHIYOUYUZIJINLAIYUANZHUYAOWEICAIZHENGZIJIN,XIANGDUIZIJINLAIYUANDUOYANGHUADEZHIKUERYAN,SHIYEDANWEIXINGZHIKUDEDULIXINGYOUSUOQIANQUE,BULIYUZHIKUDE“DULIXINGSIWEI”HE“DADANFASHENG”,DANGCAIZHENGSHOUJINSHI,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIANGXUERUOWOGUOZHIKUKAIZHANDAGUIMOHESHENDUYANJIUDENENGLI。

四 中国特色新型智库的发展建议

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WOGUOGAIGEKAIFANGZHIQIANDEZHENGZHIJUECETIXIXIANGDUIJIANDAN,ZHENGFUGUANYUANYIBANKEPINGJIEZHENGFUNEIBUYANJIUBINGJIEHEZISHENJINGYANJINXINGPANDUAN,YINERDUIZHIKUDEXUQIUBINGBUPOQIE,JIBIANJIEZHUZHIKULILIANGJINXINGJUECEFENXI,DUIZHIKUNENGLIDEYAOQIUYEBINGBUYANKE,ZHENGTIERYANDUIYUZHIKUQIANQUERENSHIYUZHONGSHI。

DANGDESHIBADAYILAI,SUIZHEDANGHEZHENGFULINGDAORENZAIZHENGCECENGMIANKAISHIJIAQIANGDUIZHIKUFAZHANDEYINDAOHEFUCHI,ZHIKUDEZUOYONGBEIYUELAIYUEDUORENSUOZHENGSHI。2013NIAN4YUE,XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIJIUJIAQIANGZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGZHIKUJIANSHEZUOCHUMINGQUEPISHI:“ZHIKUSHIGUOJIARUANSHILIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,SUIZHEXINGSHIDEFAZHAN,ZHIKUDEZUOYONGHUIYUELAIYUEDA,YAOGAODUZHONGSHI、JIJITANSUOZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGZHIKUDEZUZHIXINGSHIHEGUANLIXINGSHI。”SHIBAJIESANZHONGQUANHUITONGGUODE《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUANYUQUANMIANSHENHUAGAIGERUOGANZHONGDAWENTIDEJUEDING》SHOUCIMINGQUETIJI“ZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGZHIKU”ZHEIYIZHONGYAOGAINIAN。ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGBANGONGTING、GUOWUYUANBANGONGTINGZAI2015NIAN1YUE20RIYINFADE《GUANYUJIAQIANGZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGZHIKUJIANSHEDEYIJIAN》ZHICHUZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGZHIKUZUOWEIFEIYINGLIXINGZIXUNJIGOU,QIZHUYAOYANJIUDUIXIANGSHIZHANLVEWENTIHEGONGGONGZHENGCE,ZONGZHIYINGWEIFUWUDANGHEZHENGFUKEXUEMINZHUYIFAJUECE。

XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAIDANGDESHIJIUDABAOGAODUIZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGZHIKUJIANSHEZUOCHULEZHONGYAOLUNSHU:“SHENHUAMAKESIZHUYILILUNYANJIUHEJIANSHE,JIAKUAIGOUJIANZHONGGUOTESEZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUE,JIAQIANGZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGZHIKUJIANSHE。”ZHEIWEIXINSHIDAIZHIKUJIANSHEZHIMINGLEFANGXIANG。

(ER)JIANSHEZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGZHIKUDESANGEJIANYI

1.JUNHENGZHIKUZIJINLAIYUAN

ZHIKUDEFAZHANLIBUKAIZHENGFUCAIZHENGDEZHICHI,YOUQISHIWOGUOZHIKUXIANGJIAOFADAGUOJIADINGJIANZHIKUERYAN,RENGCHUYUPEIYUFAZHANJIEDUAN,GENGXUYAOZHENGFUJIYUYIDINGCHENGDUDEGUANZHUHEFUCHI。DANJIEJIAN和记国际备用域名JINGYAN,JIANYIWOGUOZHIKUNENGGOUJINYIBUFENGFUZIJINLAIYUAN,JIAQIANGZHIKUDEZILIGENGSHENGNENGLIHEDULIFAZHANNENGLI。

2.GUANZHUZHIKUFAZHANGUIHUAHEYANJIUZHANWEI

SUIZHEWOGUO和记国际备用域名DIWEIHE和记国际备用域名HUAYUQUANDETISHENG,JIANYIWOGUOZHIKUFAZHANGUIHUACENGMIAN,YISHIGUIHUACAIZHENGZHICHILEIZHIKU,CONGLEIXING、FENBU、JIGOUGUIMO、YANJIULEIBIEDENGFANGMIANJINXINGTONGCHOU。ERSHIGULIZHIKULEIXINGDUOYUANHUA,DUIQIYEZHIKU、SHEHUIZHIKUDEFAZHANJIYUZHENGCEHECAISHUIZHICHI。SANSHIFAHUIZHIKUDEYUPANHEYINDAOZUOYONG,CONGYUANXIANDE“CHUXIANWENTI—JIEJUEWENTI”DE“HOUSHOU”MOSHI,ZHUANBIANWEI“YUXIANGUANZHU—YUPANWENTI”DE“XIANSHOU”MOSHI,CUJINGENGZAOQIFAXIANQIANZAIWENTIBINGYUXIANGUIBIHECHULIFENGXIAN。

ZAIYANJIUZHANWEICENGMIAN,JIANYIXITONGDIAOZHENGHEZHUANBIAN。YISHISHIYINGWOGUOYIJINGWANCHENGCONGGUOQU“FAZHANZHONGDEDAGUO”,DAO“YOUDANDANG、FUZERENDEDAGUO”DEDINGWEIZHUANBIAN;ERSHISHIYINGCONGYIWOGUOWEIYUANXINDENEISHIJIAODUKANGUONEIWAIJINGJISHEHUIFAZHAN,DAOZHONGGUOTESEDAGUOWAIJIAOHERENLEIMINGYUNGONGTONGTIDEJIAODUGUANZHUQUANQIUJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANDESHIYEZHUANBIAN,JINYIBUTUOKUANYANJIUFANWEIHEYANJIULINGYU,GENGJIAGUANZHU和记国际备用域名WENTI,FABIAO和记国际备用域名YANJIUCHENGGUO,TIGAO和记国际备用域名SHEHUIYINGXIANG。

3.ZHUAZHUTIAOYUESHIFAZHANQIJI

BUMOUQUANJUZHE,BUZUMOUYIYU。WOGUOZHIKUYINGGAIZHUAZHUDANGQIANTIAOYUESHIFAZHANDELIANGDAQIJI:

YISHIJINGJISHEHUIGAOZHILIANGFAZHANHEBUTONGGUOJIAFAZHANJIEDUANCHAYIDAILAIDETIAOYUESHIFAZHANJIHUI。YI“BAINIANWEIYOUZHIDABIANJU”XIADESHEHUIJINGJIBODONGFAZHANWEILANBENHEQIJI,DUINEIDIAOZHENGZHIKUZHANLVEBUJU,DUIWAIZHUAJINYANSHENZHIKUCHUJIAO,CHENDIANZHIKUDEYANJIUDIYUN,JIAQIANGDUIWEILAIJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANHEZHENGCEZHIDUSHEDINGDEFENXIHEYUPAN,ZENGQIANGZHIKUDUIGUONEIWAISHEHUIFAZHANDEZHENGMIANYINGXIANG。

ERSHIKEJIFAZHANDAILAIDESHUZIJINGJI、RENGONGZHINENGSHOUDUANERDAILAIDETIAOYUESHIBUJUJIHUI。JIJIYANJIULIYONGDASHUJUYUHULIANWANGJISHU,TUPOXINGYE、LINGYU、QUWEI、QIYE、JISHUDENGBILEI,SHULIZHIKUZHANGQIJILEIDEXINXIBINGZHENGHEGELEIWAIBUXINXIZIYUAN,JIANLIPANGDADEYINGYONGXINGSHUJUKU,SHISHUJUDEYIXUNHUANKAIFALIYONG,TONGSHIBUDUANKUOCHONGGENGXIN,TUIDONGGOUJIANZHIKUYUNXINGXINMOSHI。ZHEIBUJINNENGGOUSHIZHIKUGENGKUAIDIBUZHUOSHISHISHUJUHEXINXIDONGTAI,WEISHENDUYANPANJIYUCEZUOHAOCHUBEI;ERQIEYOUYUWEILAIXINXINGZHIKUBIXUSHIYINGJISHUBIANGE,TIQIANBUJUNENGGOUSHIZHIKUWEIWEILAIJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANMOSHIZHINENGHUAZHUANBIANZUOHAOZHUNBEI。

参考文献

[1] McGann J G. 2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report[R]. University of Pennsylvania,2020.

[2] McGann J G. 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report[R]. University of Pennsylvania, 2015.

[3] McGann J G. 2015 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report[R]. University of Pennsylvania, 2016.

[4] McGann J G. 2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report[R]. University of Pennsylvania, 2017.

[5] McGann J G. 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report[R]. University of Pennsylvania, 2018.

[6] McGann J G. 2018 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report[R]. University of Pennsylvania, 2019.

[7] 王斯敏, 张胜. 2019年CTTI来源智库“体检报告”[N]. 光明日报.2019年12月19日. http://news.gmw.cn/2019-12-19/content_33415706.htm?s=gmwreco2.

[8] Haass R N. Think tanks and US Foreign policy: A policy-maker's perspective[J]. US Foreign Policy Agenda, 2002, 7(3): 5-8.

[9] Christopher J. Rastrick. Thinking about Trump: American Think Tanks and Their New Political Reality[J/OL].

http://onthinktanks.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Rastrick_ThinkingAboutTrump.pdf., 2017.




 
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