中咨视界

王广宇 彭翔 | BIM技术在建设项目成本控制中的应用
发布日期:2020-10-20 作者:王广宇 彭翔 信息来源:中咨研究 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

JIANZHUXINXIMOXING(YINGWENBuilding Information Modeling,JIANCHENGBIM)ZUOWEIJIANZHUYESHIYONGXINXINGDEYIZHONGXINXIHUAJISHU,JINNIANLAIYIZHISHOUDAOGUOJIADEGAODUZHONGSHI。BIMJISHUKEYICHONGFENSHOUJIXIANGMUQUANSHENGMINGZHOUQIGEGEJIEDUANDEXINXI,YOUXIAOSUODUANGONGCHENGSHIGONGSHIJIAN,JIEYUEJIANSHECHENGBEN,YOUXIAOTIGAOGECANYUFANGDEJUECEXIAOLVHEXIANGMUZHILIANG。BIMJISHUDEYINGYONGDUISHEJIDANWEIHESHIGONGDANWEIYUELAIYUEQIDAOBUKETIDAIDEJIJIZUOYONG。BENWENYIMOUJIANSHEXIANGMUBIMJISHUYINGYONGWEILI,CHANSHUBIMJISHUZAISHEJIJIEDUANYUSHIGONGJIEDUANZHONGCHENGBENKONGZHIDEYINGYONG。

一、BIM技术的特点

BIMJISHUZUOWEIJIANZHUXINGYEDEYIGEGONGJU,TAZHUYAOTONGGUOBUTONGLEIXINGDERUANJIANJINXINGXINXIJICHENG,SHIXIANBIMDENWEIYINGYONG。JUTILAISHUO,TASHIYIGERUANJIANJIQUN,JIEHEWOGUOXIANJIEDUANBIMYINGYONGQINGKUANG,CHANGYONGDERUANJIANJITAMENZHIJIANXIANGHUXIEDIAOGUANXIRUTU1-1[1]SUOSHI:

TU1-1ZHONGDESHIXIANBIAOSHISHUJUXINXIKEZHIJIEHUYONG,XUXIANBIAOSHISHUJUXINXIKEJIANJIEHUYONG,JIANTOUBIAOSHIHUYONGSHUJUXINXIDEFANGXIANG。BIMXIANGGUANRUANJIANZAIJIANSHEXIANGMUDEYINGYONG,CHENGXIANYIXIAJIGETEDIAN:

(一)仿真性

BIMJISHUZAIJIANSHEXIANGMUGUANLIGONGZUOZHONGCHENGXIANCHUBIJIAOMINGXIANDEFANGZHENXINGTEDIAN,TONGGUOTIQIANFAXIANKENENGCUNZAIDEGELEIWENTI,JISHICAIQUYOUXIAODEKONGZHICUOSHI,XIAOCHUKENENGDEFENGXIANYINHUAN[2]。LIRU,YOUHUASHEJIFANGAN,TIGAOSHEJIZHILIANGYUJINGDU;DUIXIANGMUZHONGNANDIANJIEDIANJINXINGMONI,ZHIGUANLEJIESHIGONGGONGXU,YANZHENGFUZAJIANZHUTIXIDEKEJIANZAOXING;YUNWEIMONI,DUISHEBEIJINXINGYUNXINGJIANKONG、NENGYUANYUNXINGGUANLIJIJIANZHUKONGJIANGUANLI。

(二)可视化

KESHIHUATEDIAN,JIZAIJIANSHEXIANGMUGUANLIGONGZUOZHONGTONGGUOSHIYONGSANWEILITIMOXING,NENGGOUSHIJIAODADEWEIXIANWENTIDEYIBIMIAN,NENGGOUYOUHUAXIANGMUGUANLILIUCHENG,TIGAOJIANSHEXIANGMUGUANLIDEZHENDUIXING,QUEBAOJIANSHEXIANGMUGUANLIGONGZUODEZHENZHENGLUOSHI。LIRU,YOUYUBIMMOXINGDEKESHIHUA,FEIZHUANYECHUSHENDEGONGZUORENYUANKEYIJIEZHUGAIPINGTAIDUIXIANGMUYOUGENGQINGXIDILEJIE,NENGGOUDUIJIANHUAHOUDEGEGEBUFENYIJIGEGOUJIANGENGLEJIE,GENGQINGXIDELIJIEXIANGGUANTUZHIWENTI,JISHIZHIGUANYOUXIAODIJIEJUEWENTI。

(三)协调性

BIMJISHUZAIJIANSHEXIANGMUGEJIEDUANXIEDIAOSHANGJUYOUMINGXIANDEYOUSHI。SHEJIDANWEITONGGUOMOXINGJIANGGEZHUANYEBUTONGXITONGLIANXIZAIYIQI,TIQIANWANCHENGMOXINGYOUHUA,JIANSHAOYINSHEJIBIANGENGYINQIDECHENGBENZENGJIA;SHIGONGDANWEITONGGUOBIMJISHUDUIXIANGMUZHENGTIJINDUJINXINGSHIYANCAOZUO,HELIDIAOPEIZIYUAN,BAOZHENGSHISHIGUOCHENGDEYOUXUJINXING;YUNWEIDANWEIKEJIYUBIMBAOHANDEZHIGUAN、SHIYONGDEGONGCHENGXINXIJINXINGYUNWEIXIEDIAO,TIGAOGUANLIXIAOLV。

(四)可出图性

BIMJISHUDEKECHUTUXINGTIXIANZAIJIYUXIANGGUANRUANJIANJINXINGCHUANTONGDEPING、LI、POUJIXIANGTUDESHUCHUWAI,HAIKEYISHUCHUBIMYINGYONGFANGMIANDETUZHI[3]。LIRU,GEZHUANYEBIMMOXINGZHENGHEHOU,LIYONGPENGZHUANGJIANCHAGONGNENG,CHUJUBUTONGZHUANYEJIANDEPENGZHUANGJIANCHABAOGAO,PENGZHUANGJIANCHAXIUGAIWANBIHOUCHUJUGUANXIANZONGHEPAIBUTU。

(五)信息完备性

XINXIWANBEIXING,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIBIMJISHUKEYIZHANXIANJIANSHEXIANGMUDE3DJIHEXINXIYUTUOPUGUANXILIANGFANGMIAN。LINGWAI,HAIKEYIMIAOSHUWANZHENGDEGONGCHENGXINXI。LIRU,XIANGMUMINGCHENG、JIEGOULEIXING、CAILIAOKUANSHI、ANZHUANGLEIXINGDENGSHEJIXINXI;JINDUZHUANGTAI、CHENGBENKONGZHI、ZHILIANGANQUANWENTIDENGSHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEXINXI;GONGCHENGANQUANXINGNENG、CAILIAOXINGNENGDENGWEIHUFANGMIANXINXI。

LINGWAI,BIMJISHUDETEDIANHAIBAOKUOJINXINGZHENGGEJIANZHUSHENGMINGZHOUQIJIYOUJUECE、SHEJI、SHIGONGNAIZHIYUNYINGDEYITIHUAGUANLI,TONGGUOCANSHUBIANLIANGJIANLIHEFENXIMOXINGDENGTEDIAN[4]。SUIZHEBIMJISHUDESHENDUYINGYONG,WEILAIHUIYOUGENGDUOYOUSHICHENGXIAN。

二、BIM技术在成本控制中的优势分析

BIMJISHUCONGJUECEJIEDUANDEFANGANYOUHUA、SHEJIJIEDUANDEPENGZHUANGJIANCHA、SHISHIJIEDUANDEBIANGENGGUANLIYIJIYUNWEIJIEDUANDESHESHIWEIHUDENG,KEYICONGGEJIEDUANGEJIAODUKONGZHIXIANGMUCHENGBEN。XIANGJIAOYUCHUANTONGCHENGBENKONGZHIFANGFA,BIMJISHUZAICHENGBENKONGZHIFANGMIANJUYOUYIXIAJIFANGMIANYOUSHI:

(一)成本数据的延续性和可追溯性

JIYUBIMJISHUKEDAJIANCONGXIANGMUGUIHUA、SHEJIZHIYUNWEIDEQUANGUOCHENGMOXING,BAOKUOFANGANBIXUAN、ZHAOTOUBIAO、ZHILIANGHEANQUANKONGZHIDENGFANGMIAN,SHEJIZHONGDUOLIYIXIANGGUANZHE。GEMOXINGKEZAIGEGEJIEDUANJIYUBUTONGQUANXIANJINXINGXINXIJIAOHUHEPINGTAIGONGXIANG,XINGCHENGKEZHUISUWANZHENGDECHENGBENSHUJUDANGAN,SHIXIANSHUJUDEYANXUYUZHONGFUSHIYONG[5]。

(二)成本数据处理的高效性和准确性

LIYONGBIMJISHUJINXINGGONGCHENGJILIANG,YINMOXINGDEKESHIXING,JIDADIQUEBAOLEGONGCHENGLIANGJISUANDEZHUNQUEXING;TONGGUOZHONGFUSHIYONGMOXINGYIJIZAIBUTONGJIEDUANDUIQIJINXINGXIUSHAN,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGTIGAOLEZAOJIAGONGZUORENYUANDEXIAOLV;BIMJISHUKECONGSHIJIANWEIDU、KONGJIANWEIDUDENGCENGMIANJINXINGCHENGBENSHUJUDEHUIZONGYUSHENGCHENG,KUAISUSHIXIANCHENGBENSHUJUDEFENXIYUCHULI。BIMJISHUSHIXIANLEGONGCHENGJILIANGYUJIJIADEZIDONGHUA,KEJIANGTOUZIGUANLIQIANZHI,YOUXIAOKONGZHIGONGCHENGZONGTOUZI;BIMJISHUKESUISHIDIAOCHUCHENGBENSHUJU,JINGQUECAILIAOYONGLIANG,SHIXIANJINGXIHUAGUANLI;TONGSHI,JIYUBIMJISHUJINXINGCHENGBENSHUJUFENXI,SHISHISHIDONGTAIDEGUOCHENG,BAOZHENGLESHUJUDEZHENSHIYOUXIAO[6]。

(三)项目动态成本实时监控和预测

CEZHONGYUSHIZHONGJISHIHOUSHICHUANTONGCHENGBENKONGZHIDEZHONGYAONEIRONG,ERBIMJISHUCEZHONGYUXUYAOXIANDAIKEXUEJISHUDEFUZHU,ZAIBIMCHENGBENGUANLIPINGTAITONGGUOCHENGBENSHUJUYUMOXING、JINDUXINXIDEGUANLIAN,SHIXIANCHENGBENDESHISHIJIANKONG,JIEHEPINGTAINEIZHIYUJINGLIUCHENG,BANGZHUGUANLIZHEJISHIFENXIBINGJIEJUEPIANCHA,QUEBAOCHENGBENMUBIAODESHIXIAN[7]。

(四)提升企业成本控制能力

CHUANTONGDECHENGBENKONGZHIFANGFAZHONG,CHENGBENSHUJUDEHUOQUXUYAOGEXIANGMUBUGEZITIGONG,ERBIMJISHUDESHIYONGJIANHUALEZHEIZHONGGONGZUOLIUCHENG。GEXIANGMUBUJIANGBIMMOXINGSUOZAICHENGBENSHUJUTONGGUOWANGLUOSHANGCHUANZHIQIYEYUNKONGJIAN,BINGJIANGGELEICHENGBENSHUJUFENXIHUIZONGGOUJIANQIYEJICHENGBENSHUJUKU,TISHENGQIYERUANSHILI;BIMCHENGBENXINXIGUANLIPINGTAIDEJIANLIZHUYAOFUWUYUQIYECENGMIAN,SHIWEILEQUEBAOQIYEZHONGDEXIANGGUANBUMENNENGGOUSHISHIFENXIANGDAOMEIGEXIANGMUDESHIJICHENGBENSHUJU,BAOZHENGRANGQIYEJISHIDIZHANGWOMEIGEXIANGMUDEXINXI,CONGERTISHENGLEQIYEZHENGTIDECHENGBENGUANKONGNENGLI[8]。

三、BIM技术在成本控制中的应用分析

(一)设计阶段成本控制应用分析

ZAISHEJIJIEDUAN,ZHUYAOTONGGUOBIMJISHUJINXINGGAISUANBIANZHIJITUZHIYOUHUA,ZHUBUSHIXIANDUICHENGBENDEYOUXIAOKONGZHI。ZHUYAOTIXIANZAIYIXIALIANGFANGMIANDENEIRONG:

1.基于BIM技术的设计概算

SHEJIGAISUANSHIYOUSHEJIDANWEIHUOZAOJIAZIXUNDANWEIYIJUCHUBUSHEJITUZHI,TAOYONGGAISUANDINGE,GUSUANCHUGONGCHENGDEJIANSHEFEIYONG,QIANGDIAO“TUHOUCHENGBEN”。YOUYUBIMJISHUDESHEJIGAISUANKEYIDUICHENGBENJINXINGJISHIFANGZHENYUHESUAN,BINGQIEHAINENGGOUJIANGQIYUNYONGDAOXIANGMUDEGUANLIZHONG。ZAIXIANGMUSHISHIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,MEIGECANYUFANGDOUNENGGOUZAISHEJIJIEDUANZHANKAIGONGTONGXIEZHUGONGZUO,SHISHIZHANGWODAOXIANGMUDEJINDUHECHENGBENXINXI,YOUXIAOHUAJIESHEJIGUOCHENGZHONGCHUXIANDEZHUANYEGELIEWENTIYIJIKAIFAGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEJIEDUANFENLIWENTI,YEKEDUISHEJIPINFANBIANGENG、SHEJIYUCHENGBENFENLI、SHEJIYUSHIGONGFENLIDENGWENTIJINXINGYOUXIAOHUAJIE;YINCI,WOMENKEYITONGGUOBIMCHENGBENFENXIZHIBIAOJILISHISHUJUDEFUZHU,YIJIQIGONGCHENGLIANGKUAISUFENXIYUJISUANNENGLI,GENGZHUNQUE、GENGXUNSUDIDUISHEJIGAISUANJINXINGFENXIBINGSHIDESHEJIGAISUANDEZHUNQUEXINGDEDAOHENDABAOZHENG。

2.基于BIM技术的设计优化

ZAIJIANSHEXIANGMUDESHISHIGUOCHENGZHONG,YOUYUGONGCHENGSHIJIQINGKUANGDEBIANHUA、GECANYUFANGDEBUXIEDIAOYIJIQITAZHUDUOBUKEYUJIANDEYINSUDAOZHILESHEJIBIANGENGSHIYOUFASHENG,SHEJIBIANGENGDECHUXIANHUIDUICHENGBENKONGZHIZAOCHENGHENDADEYINGXIANG。LIYONGBIMJISHUJIYUSHIGONGTUTUZHIGOUJIANGEZHUANYEDEBIMMOXING,LIYONGPENGZHUANGJIANCEGONGNENG,FAXIANTUZHIZHONGDE“CUO、LOU、PENG、QUE”DENGWENTI,ZHAOCHUSHEJIZHONGDEZHUYAOPENGZHUANGDIAN,DUIFAXIANDEWENTIJINXINGSHIDIANBAOCUN、WENTIBIAOJIZUIHOUCHUJUBUTONGZHUANYEJIANDEPENGZHUANGFENXIBAOGAO,SHEJISHIGENJUFENXIBAOGAOJINXINGXIUGAIHEWANSHAN。SHIGONGTUWANCHENGHOUJINXINGGUANXIANZONGHEPAIBU,DUIJIANZHUWUNEIBUTONGZHUANYEJIANGUANDAOHESHEBEIDEPENGZHUANG、ZHONGDIEHECHONGTUANZHAOGUIFANHEXIANGYINGPAIBUGUIZEJINXINGHELIBUZHI,ZAIMOXINGZHONGDUIGUANXIANDEWEIZHIHEBIAOGAOJINXINGJINGZHUNDINGWEI,BIMIANSHEJIBIANGENGHEZAOCHENGBUBIYAODEFANGONG。JIANSHAOSHEJIBIANGENGBUJINNENGYOUHUASHEJI,HAINENGWEIXIANGMUDECHENGBENKONGZHITIGONGYOULIZHICHENG。

(二)施工阶段成本控制应用分析

BIMJISHUZAISHIGONGJIEDUANDEYINGYONGZHUYAOGENJUSHISHIGONGDANWEIZISHENXUQIUHUOZHEYEZHUYAOQIU,ZAIHETONGFANWEINEIJIANLIBIMMOXINGBINGDUIQIJINXINGYINGYONG,BINGZHENDUIZISHENXIANGMUJINXINGSHIGONGFANGAN、JINDUMONI,HELIYOUHUASHIGONGGONGYIHEGONGXU;JIEHEXIETONGPINGTAI,SHIGONGDANWEIJISHIFAXIANSHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHILIANGANQUANWENTI,SUISHIHUOQUXIANGMUDEGEXIANGZHUANGTAI,BINGDUICHENGBENSHISHIDONGTAIJIANKONG。BIMJISHUZAISHIGONGJIEDUANDEYINGYONGZHUYAOCEZHONGYUCONGXIANGMUDEZHAOTOUBIAOJIEDUAN、SHISHIJIEDUANHEJUNGONGYANSHOUJIEDUANJINXINGXIANGMUDECHENGBENKONGZHI。

1.招投标阶段BIM应用成本控制

BIMJISHUZAIZHAOTOUBIAOJIEDUANCHENGBENKONGZHIYINGYONGZHUYAOTIXIANZAIGONGCHENGLIANGDEKUAISUTONGJI。GONGCHENGLIANGDEJISUANSHIXIANGMUZHAOTOUBIAOJIEDUANDEHEXINGONGZUO。YINGYONGBIMJISHUYUCHUANTONGGONGCHENGLIANGJISUANFANGSHIDUIBIJIANBIAO3-1:

2.实施阶段BIM应用成本控制

ZAISHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGBIMYINGYONGCHENGBENKONGZHIZHUYAOTIXIANZAISHIGONGFANGANYOUHUA、CAILIAOCAIGOUYUWULIAOGENZONG、SHIGONGJINDUMONI、ZHILIANGANQUANGUANLI、CHENGBENFENXIDENGJIGEFANGMIAN,JUTINEIRONGRUXIA:

(1)施工方案

LIYONGBIMJISHUJINXINGSHIGONGFANGANZHIDINGYUJISHUSHOUDUANXUANZEDEYICHUZHEZHONGBIAOXIANZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN,DIYISHIKESHIXING,DIERWEIKEMONIXING。ZAIBIMJISHUFUZHUXIA,XINGCHENGMOXING,KEYIDUIJIANZHUDEJIEGOUGOUCHENGJIGOUJIANJINXINGQUANJIAODUQUANFANGWEIDEGUANCHA,XUNSUHUOQUGOUJIANDEQUEQIESHUXING;CIWAI,HAINENGZAIRUANJIANZHONGMONISHISHIGUOCHENG,BASHIGONGFANGANHEJINDUJIHUAJINXINGJIEHE,GENGJIAFANGBIANDIJIANGSHIGONGFANGANZHUANHUACHENGDONGHUAXINGSHIBINGJINXINGZHANSHI,SHIGONGJISHURENYUANKEGENGJIAZHIGUANDEDUIFANGANDEKEXINGXINGJINXINGPANDUAN,YOUHUASHIGONGFANGANHUOGONGYILIUCHENG,HENDACHENGDUSHANGMIANYUMANGMUJINXINGGONGZUO、GUANXINGSHIGONGDENGKENENGCHUXIANDEWENTI,JINKENENGCONGJISHUSHANGKEYIZUODAOYICICHENGGONG,JIANGDIFANGONGDEKENENGXINGYUZIYUANZHONGFULANGFEILV。

(2)材料采购与物料跟踪

JIEHEBIMMOXING,JISUAN、MONIHEYOUHUADUIYINGYUXIANGMUGESHIGONGJIEDUANDELAOWU、CAILIAO、SHEBEIDENGDEXUQIULIANG;JIEZHUBIMMOXING,GONGSIKEJIANGXIANJINLIULIANGZHUANGKUANGYUGONGCHENGJINDUXIANGJIEHE,SHIXIANHELIZUZHI、CAIGOUSHIGONGFUZHUGONGJU、XIEDIAOSHIGONGCAILIAOJINCHANG、JIJUXIANCHANGBUZHIJISHIYONGDENGWUZICAIGOUGONGZUO;JIEZHUYUBIMMOXINGDEKESHIHUA,DUICAILIAORUHEDUIFANGJIXIANCHANGSHESHIRUHEBUZHIJINXINGMONI,PANDUANQIHELIXING,CONGERJIANLILAODONGLIJIHUA、CAILIAOXUQIUJIHUAHEJIXIEJIHUADENG,ZAICIJICHUSHANGXINGCHENGXIANGMUCHENGBENJIHUA,BAOZHENGCAILIAOXUQIUJIHUADEZHUNQUEXING、JISHIXING,YOUZHUYUSHIXIANCHENGBENDEJINGXIHUAGUANKONG。

(3)施工进度BIM应用与成本管控

WULUNSHIXIANGMUDESHIGONGZONGJINDUJIHUAHAISHIJUTIDAOMEIYITIANDESHIGONGJINDU,DOUKEYIJIANGJINDUJIHUAFUJIAJIBIMMOXINGZHONGGEGEGOUJIANJINXING4DSHIGONGMONI,SHIXIANGMUGUANLIRENYUANQINGXIZHIGUANDIQUEDINGXIANGMUDEZHONGNANDIANJIGUANJIANJIEDIANBUWEI,JIAODACHENGDUDIJIANGDIFANGONGCHENGBENHEGUANLICHENGBEN,JIANGDIFENGXIAN,ZENGQIANGGUANLIZHEDUISHIGONGGUOCHENGDEKONGZHINENGLI。

3.竣工阶段BIM成本控制应用内容

JUNGONGJIEDUANBIMCHENGBENKONGZHIYINGYONGZHUYAOYOUYIXIALIANGFANGMIANDENEIRONG:

(1)竣工结算

JIYUBIMDEJIESUANZAOJIAGUANLIBUDANNENGGOUTISHENGGONGCHENGLIANGDEJISUANXIAOLV,ERQIEKEYIWEIJIESUANZILIAODEWANBEIXINGHEGUIFANXINGTIGONGKEKAOYIJU。ZAIXIANGMUSHISHICHENGBENKONGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGBIMMOXINGZAIXIANGGUANHETONG、GONGCHENGKUANZHIFU、CAILIAOGUANLI、SHEJIBIANGENGDENGXINXIDEBUDUANSHURUZHONGDEDAOWANSHANHEGENGXIN,DAOJUNGONGJIESUANDESHIHOU,XINXILIANGYIWANQUANKEYISHUOMINGJUNGONGGONGCHENGSHITI。YOUYUBIMMOXINGZAIZHENGGEJIANSHEXIANGMUSHENGMINGZHOUQIJILUDEZHUNQUEXINGJIWANBEIXING,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGSHIDEJIESUANXIAOLVDEYITISHENG。ERQIE,BIMKEZAIXIANGMUDEZHENGGESHENGMINGZHOUQIKESHIHUADIJIANGSHUJUBIANGENGQIANHOUDEMOXINGZUOBIJIAOFENXI,YOUCIKEYISHISUOPEIZHENGYIWENTIYINGRENERJIE,JIAKUAILEJIESUANHESHENHESUDU。

(2)项目后评价

XIANGMUHOUPINGJIAJIWEIYIZHONGJISHUJINGJIHUODONG,ZHUYAOZHENDUIYIWANCHENGXIANGMUDEYUDINGMUBIAO、SHIXINGGUOCHENG、SHOUYIXIAOGUO、ZUOYONGYIJIYINGXIANGERJINXINGZONGJIEFENXIDEHUODONG。BIMJISHUHAIZAI3DMOXINGDEJICHUSHANGJIARULESHIJIANWEIDU,YICIJIANGSHIJISHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGDESHUJUYUJIHUAMUBIAOJINXINGBIDUI,SHIDESHIGONGPIANCHAYIJIJIHUABIANDONGDEQINGKUANGKEYIGENGLITI、ZHIJIEDIZHANXIAN,JINERDUIKENENGDEYUANYINJINXINGFENXI,SHIDESHIGONGGEGEJIEDUANDEPINGJIADOUGENGJIAKEGUAN。

四、BIM技术在成本控制中的实证应用

JIYUQIANWENDUIBIMLILUNJIBIMJISHUYINGYONGNEIRONGDEXIANGGUANJIESHAO,BENWENYIBEIJINGSHIMOUJIANSHEXIANGMUWEILI,SHIZHENGYANJIULEBIMJISHUZAISHIJIJIANSHEXIANGMUSHEJIJIEDUANDAOSHIGONGJIEDUANDECHENGBENKONGZHIYINGYONG,FENXILEBIMJISHUDAIJIXIANGMUDESHIJIXIAOYI。

(一)项目概况

XIANGMUZONGJIANZHUMIANJI40059㎡,BAOHAN4DONGZHUZHAILOU,1GEDIXIACHEKU,QIZHONGZHUZHAILOUDISHANG6CENG,DIXIA3CENG,JIANZHUGAODU16.8m;CHEKUDIXIA2CENG,MAISHENWEI7.85m;ZHUZHAILOUJICHULEIXINGWEIFABANJICHU,CHEKUJICHULEIXINGWEIZHUXIADULIJICHUJIAFANGSHUIBAN,ZHUTIJIEGOULEIXINGWEIKUANGJIAJIANLIQIANG;XIANGMUJINGZHUANGXIUJIAOFU。BENXIANGMUHUODEBEIJINGSHIJIEGOUZHANGCHENGBEI。

(二)设计阶段的BIM成本控制

BENXIANGMUMOXINGGONGZUOZUJIEHEJIANMOGUIZEJIYURevit 2016(AutodeskGONGSIKAIFADEJIANZHUXINXIMOXINGGOUJIANRUANJIAN)FENZHUANYEJIANLIJIANZHU、JIEGOU、JIDIANSANWEIMOXING,JUTIRUTU4-1HE4-2,QIZHONGJIDIANMOXINGWEIDIANQI、JIPAISHUI、TONGFENGDENGGEZHUANYEZHENGHEHOUDEMOXING。

1.BIM技术在项目初步设计中的成本控制

BIMJISHUZAIXIANGMUCHUBUSHEJIJIEDUANDEGONGZUOZHUYAOSHIQIANQIMUBIAOCHENGBENDECESUAN,TONGGUOBIMCHUSHIMOXINGDECHENGBENFENXIZHIBIAOHESHUJUPINGTAILISHISHUJUDEFUZHU,LIYONGQIGONGCHENGLIANGKUAISUFENXIYUJISUAN,GENGZHUNQUE、GENGXUNSUDIDUIMUBIAOCHENGBENJINXINGCESUAN。JIEHEQIYESHUJUKUZHONGLEISIXIANGMUZAOJIAZHIBIAODEDAOBENXIANGMUGEDANWEIGONGCHENGZAOJIAZHIBIAOSHUJURUBIAO4-1,BINGGUSUANBENXIANGMUDEMUBIAOCHENGBENWEI1.5YIYUAN。

XUYAOSHUOMINGDESHIQIYESHUJUKUZHONGDEDANFANGZAOJIAZHIBIAOJISHUWEIZHENGGEXIANGMUZONGDEJIANZHUMIANJI。BENWENKAOLVDAOZHIBIAODEKECANKAOXING,ZHENDUIBENXIANGMUDANWEIGONGCHENGDEZAOJIAZHIBIAOYUYICHULI,YIDANTIDEJIANZHUMIANJIZUOWEIJISUANJISHU。

BENXIANGMUJIYUBIMMOXINGHEQIYESHUJUPINGTAIJINXINGXIANGMUMUBIAOCHENGBENCESUAN,JIAOYUCHUANTONGCHENGBENCESUANMOSHI,GONGZUOXIAOLVTIGAOLEYUE38%,CESUANJINGDUTIGAOLEYUE52%,MOXINGHESHUJUFENXIDEJIEHEZHIGUANZHANSHICHENGBENLAIYUAN。

2.BIM在项目施工图设计的成本控制

BENXIANGMUSHIGONGTUSHEJIJIEDUANLIYONGBIMJISHUZHUYAOJINXINGPENGZHUANGJIANCHA、DONGKOUYULIUDENG。ZAIXIANGMUSANWEIMOXINGDAJIANWANCHENGHOU,JIANGQUANZHUANYEMOXINGJINXINGZHENGHE,LIYONGMagiCAD(JIYURevitRUANJIANERCIKAIFADEJIXIE,DIANQIHEGUANDAOSHEJICHAJIAN)JINXINGFENZHUANYE、FENLOUCENG、FENXITONGPENGZHUANGJIANCHA,TIQIANFAXIANSHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEPENGZHUANGDIAN,BINGDECHUPENGZHUANGJIANCHABAOGAO。JUTIRUTU4-3HE4-4

ZAISHISHIPENGZHUANGJIANCHAGUOCHENGZHONGFAXIANCADSHIGONGTUZHIJIANZHU、JIEGOU、JIDIANZHUANYECHUXIANBUYIZHIDEQINGKUANG,RU1#JIDIANZHUANYEHEJIEGOUZHUANYEJINXINGPENGZHUANGJIANCHAZHONG,FAXIANWUSHUIBENGXITONGCHUANYUEDIXIASANCENGLOUBAN,JINGFANCHATUZHIFAXIAN,JIPAISHUITUZHIYOU2TAIWUSHUIBENG,ERJIEGOUTUZHIZHONGZHIYOU1GEJISHUIKENG,QIEWEIZHIBUDUI;CIWAIHAIYOUGUANXIANDEBIAOGAOMAODUN、GUANXIANCHUANLIANGBANMEIYOUYULIUTAOGUANDENG,YOUQISHIBENXIANGMUZHONGDIXIABUFENQIAOJIACHUANQIANG,TUZHIBINGMEIYOUYULIUQIAOJIATAOHEWEIZHI,CHUANTONGMOSHIXIAZAIDIANLANQIAOJIASHIGONGSHIGAIBIANQIAOJIALUYOU,ZENGJIAQIAOJIA、DIANLANYONGLIANG,ERJIEHEBIMMOXING,ZAIQIANGTISHIGONGJIEDUANYULIUQIAOJIATAOHE,JIANSHAOQIAOJIAEWAICHENGBENDEZHICHU。CHUANTONGDEERWEITUZHIHENNANFAXIANGEZHUANYEJIANPENGZHUANGWENTI,CHANGGUIZAISHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGFAXIAN,ZAIFANGONGCHULI,ZENGJIALESHIGONGCHENGBEN,YINGXIANGZHENGCHANGDESHIGONGJINDU,ERLIYONGBIMJISHUDEKESHIHUA、GEZHUANYEZHIJIANDEXIETONGTIQIANBAWENTIJIEJUE。

BENXIANGMULIYONGBIMSANWEIMOXING,JINXINGPENGZHUANGJIANCHA,TIQIANFAXIANSHIGONGZHONGDEPENGZHUANGWENTIBINGYOUHUAMOXING,DUIGUANXIANJINXINGZONGHEDIAOZHENG,JIANSHAOFANGONG,JIEYUEXIANGMUCHENGBENYUE23%;LIYONGMagiCADCHAJIANJINXINGDONGKOUDEJINGZHUNYULIU,TIGAOSHIGONGZHILIANG。

(三)施工阶段的BIM成本控制

1.场地布置

BENXIANGMULIYONGGUANGLIANDACHANGBURUANJIANXUNIJIANZAOSHIGONGXIANCHANGLINSHISHESHI,JIEHEGONGCHENGJINDU,TONGGUOMANYOUHEMONIANCHAISHIJIANYOUHUAPINGMIANBUZHIFANGAN,YIYUYANDEFANGSHILAIFAXIANHEJIEJUECHANGDIBUZHIZHONGDEWENTI,GENGJIAHELIDEQUEDINGDAOLUDEGUIHUAHEJIAGONGCHANG、DUILIAOCHANG、CHUIZHIYUNSHUJIXIEDEWEIZHI,YIDADAOYOUHUAZHENGGESHIGONGJIEDUANDESHIGONGZIYUANDEPEIZHI,BIMIANERCIBANYUNDEFASHENG,YOUXIAOTIGAOGONGZUOXIAOLV。JUTICHANGDIBUZHIMOXINGRUTU4-5:

2.工程量对比与统计

BENXIANGMUDEGONGCHENGLIANGJISUANCAIYONGBIMSUANLIANGYUGUANGLIANDASUANLIANGRUANJIANXIANGJIEHEDEXINGSHI,WEILEQUEBAOGONGCHENGLIANGDEZHUNQUEXING,BENXIANGMUDUIBIMSUANLIANGYUSUANLIANGRUANJIANJISUANDEJIEGUOJINXINGLEDUIBI,WENZHONGJINZHANSHI1#LOUDIXIAYICENGPENLINXITONGDUIBIJIEGUORUBIAO4-2SUOSHI:

BENXIANGMUFENLOUCENG、FENGOUJIAN、FENGUIGE、FENXINGHAOTONGJIGONGCHENGLIANG,GENJUDUOCICESUANZAIBAOZHENGMOXINGJINGDUDEQINGKUANGXIA,YOUSHANGBIAOJIEGUOKEZHIBIMTUJIANGONGCHENGLIANG、JIDIANGUANDAOGONGCHENGLIANGYUCHUANTONGDIANSUANGONGCHENGLIANGCHAYIXIUZHENGHOUKEBAOCHIZAI1%YINEI,YANZHENGBIMSUANLIANGDEZHUNQUEXING,WEISHIXIAN“YIMODUOYONG”TIGONGSHUJUZHICHENG,JIANSHAOZAOJIARENYUANGONGZUOLIANG,TIGAOGONGZUOXIAOLV。CIWAISHANGSHUBIAOZHONGGUANGLIANDAGQI(GUANGLIANDAGONGSIKAIFADEJIJIASUANLIANGRUANJIAN)LIANGYUrevitLIANGYUANSHISHUJUCUNZAIDECHAYIYUANYINRUXIA:

(1)DN25GUANDAO:GQISUANLIANGPENTOULIGUANGAO420mm,revitMOXINGPENTOULIGUANGAO350mm;GQISUANLIANGJIANG3GEN2.7mDN25GUANSHIBIECHENGDN50;

(2)DN32GUANDAO:GQISUANLIANGJIANG5GEN2.5mDN32GUANSHIBIECHENGDN50;

(3)DN40GUANDAO:GQISUANLIANGJIANG5GEN2.5mDN40GUANSHIBIECHENGDN50;

(4)DN50GUANDAO:GQISUANLIANGJIANG13GEN2.5mGUANDAOSHIBIECHENGDN50;

(5)DN150GUANDAO:6GENGUANCUNZAIGAOCHA0.3m,JIANGDIXIAERCENG5MIZHANGGANGUANGUISHUDIXIAYICENG。

CIWAI,JIEHEBIM5DPINGTAI(YIBIMJISHUWEIHEXINDEGONGCHENGXIANGMUQUANGUOCHENGGUANLIXIETONGPINGTAI,BAQUANZHUANYEJICHENGMOXINGWEIZAITI,GUANLIANSHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEGELEIXINXI,WEIXIANGMUTIGONGSHUJUZHICHENG,SHIXIANYOUXIAOJUECEHEJINGXIGUANLI,CONGERDADAOJIANSHAOSHIGONGBIANGENG,SUODUANGONGQI、KONGZHICHENGBEN、TISHENGZHILIANGDEMUDE)KEYIKUAISUCHUJUQINGDANGONGCHENGLIANGHEGOUJIANGONGCHENGLIANG,ZAIJILIANGZHIFUGUOCHENGZHONG,KEGENJUSHIJISHIGONGJINDUFENLOUCENG、DANTIHUOQINGDANXUANZETIQUXINGSHI,BENWENYI8YUEFENMANTANGJICHUWEILI,BIM5DANDANTITONGJIQINGDANGONGCHENGLIANGXINXIRUBIAO4-3SUOSHI:

(四)施工成本动态监测

BENXIANGMUDESHIGONGHETONGSHIGONGGONGQIWEI547GERILITIAN,JI18GEYUE。KAOLVDAO2019NIAN1YUEFENZHI3YUEFENSHUYUXIANGMUCHUNJIEFANGJIAQIJIAN,BENWENJIUXUANQU2018NIAN7YUEZHI2018NIAN12YUEZHEIYILIANXUSHIGONGSHIJIANDUANDECHENGBENSHUJUJINXINGFENXI,ZHONGDIANFENXIJIYUBIM5D(GUANGLIANDAGONGSIKAIFADESHIGONGJIEDUANJINGXIHUAGUANLIPINGTAIRUANJIAN)PINGTAIJINXINGDONGTAIJIANCEDEXIAOGUO。

1.BIM5DMOXINGTIQUCHENGBENSHUJU

(1)ZAIBIM5DMOXINGANSHIJIANDUANTIQUJIHUAGONGZUOYUSUANCHENGBEN(BCWS)DELEIJIZHIHEYIWANCHENGGONGZUOYUSUANFEIYONG(BCWP)DELEIJIZHI。

(2)ZAIYUSHIJIJIAGEGUANLIANDEBIM5DXINXIZHONGTIQUYIWANCHENGGONGZUODESHIJICHENGBEN(ACWP)DELEIJIZHI。

(3)JISUANJINDUZHIBIAO、FEIYONGZHIBIAO。LIYONGZHENGZHIFAFENXIZHIJIEJISUANCHENGBENJINDUKONGZHISUOXUYAOJINDUPIANCHA(SV)、CHENGBENPIANCHA(CV)CANSHUYIJIJINDUJIXIAOZHISHU(SPI)HEFEIYONGJIXIAOZHISHU(CPI)。JUTICHENGBENKONGZHISHUJUZHIRUBIAO4-4SUOSHI:

2.偏差预警分析

CHENGBENPIANCHALVYOUBIMXINXIJICHENGPINGTAIZIDONGJISUAN,BIM5DYUJINGTIXIYIJUSHEZHIPIANCHAYUJINGJIBIEZIDONGXUANZEYUJINGFANGSHILAITISHIDUIYINGDEXIANGMUGUANLIRENYUAN。JUTIBENXIANGMUSUOXUANQUJIEDUANPIANCHAYUJINGFENXIRUBIAO4-5SUOSHI:

CIWAI,ZHENDUIJIAOGAOPIANCHAYUJING,XIANGMUJINGLIYINGZUZHICHENGBEN、JISHU、ZHILIANG、ANQUAN、CAILIAODENGYOUGUANBUMENCONGDUOGEJIAODUGONGTONGZHIDINGJIEJUEFANGAN,FENXIPIANCHAYUANYINBINGZHIDINGZHUANRENJINXINGGENZONG。JISHIJIANGFANGANSHISHIHOUDECHENGBENSHUJUFANKUIZHIBIM5DPINGTAI,XITONGZIDONGDUIBIFENXICHENGBENKONGZHIXIAOGUO。RUGUOPIANCHAJIBIERENGJIAOGAO,XUZHONGXINZHIDINGFANGANJIXUJIANKONG,RUGUOPIANCHAYOUSUOGAISHAN,CHIXUJIANKONG,QUEBAOXIANGMUCHENGBENYIZHICHUYUKEKONGZHUANGTAI。

(五)BIM成本控制效益分析

ZAIBENXIANGMUZHONGYUNYONGBIMJISHUJINXINGCHENGBENKONGZHICHULECHANSHENGZHIJIEDEJINGJIXIAOYIWAI,HAIJUYOUYIXIAGUANLIXIAOYI:

1.协调工作内容减少

JIYUBIMJISHUZAIBENXIANGMUZHONGDEYINGYONG,FUZHUXIANGMUHETONGJILIANGBU、WUZIBUJINXINGGONGCHENGLIANGDETONGJI,ZHIGUANYOUXIAOCHAZHAOCHUTUZHIWENTIJIPENGZHUANGBAOGAO,JIYUBIMMOXINGJINXINGSANWEISHEJIJIAODI,FUZHUXIANCHANGGUANLIRENYUANJINXINGFENBAOGONGZUODEXIEDIAO,DALIANGJIANSHAOJISHUBU、GONGCHENGBUDENGXIANCHANGGUANLIBUMENDEGONGZUO,GENJUXIANCHANGCESUAN,DAYUEJIANSHAOXIANCHANGGUANLIRENYUAN20%DEGONGZUONEIRONG。

2.沟通交流时间缩短

JIYUBIMSANWEIKESHIHUATEDIAN,FUZHUXIANGMUGUANLIGEBUMENJINXINGSANWEIKESHIHUAGOUTONG,DUIFANGANJINXINGTAOLUN、GONGCHENGBUSHU、DONGTAIJIAODI,BIRUDUIYUJIEGOUJIAOWEIFUZADEDIFANG,XIANCHANGYIXIANSHIGONGRENYUANLIJIEJIAOWEIKUNNAN,TONGGUOSANWEIBIMMOXING,GENGJIAYOUXIAOZHIGUANDIJINXINGKESHIHUAGOUTONG,DALIANGSUODUANWUXIAOGOUTONGYIJIKEZADEHUIYISHIJIAN,JINGXIANCHANGRENYUANGANSHOU,GOUTONGSHIJIANDADAJIANSHAO。

3.问题查找完整度提升

BENXIANGMUZHONG,JIYUBIMJISHUYINGYONGCHAZHAODETUZHICUO、LOU、PENG、QUEWENTIYIGONGYOU1235GE,BINGZAISHIGONGSHISHIQIANDEDAOYOUXIAOJIEJUE。FENXICIWENTIBAOGAO,QIZHONGYOUXIAOWENTI473GE,ZHONGDAWENTI127GE。YINCIYUGUZHENGGEXIANGMUTONGGUOBIMJISHUYINGYONGQINGKUANGXIATUZHIHUISHENDETUZHIWENTICHAZHAOWANZHENGDUCONG60%TISHENGDAOLE95%。

五、结语与建议

BENWENTONGGUOSHIZHENGFENXILEBIMJISHUZAIJIANSHEXIANGMUCHENGBENKONGZHIZHONGYINGYONGDEKEXUEXINGHEKEXINGXING,YANZHENGLEBIMJISHUKEDUIXIANGMUGUANLIDEGEGEFANGMIANJINXINGZHIDAO,KEYOUXIAOTISHENGSHIGONGXIAOLVHESHUIPING,BINGNENGWEIXIANGMUDEGAOZHILIANGSHIGONGTIGONGHOUTAIZHICHENGHEBAOZHANG。YEWEIJIANZHUXINGYESHIXIANCHENGBENDEJINGXIHUAGUANLIHEMUBIAOCHENGBENDEZUIYOUHUATIGONGYIGESHIJIYIJU。

BIMJISHUDEFAZHANYUCHENGSHUWEICHENGBENKONGZHITIGONGLEQIANGDADEJISHUZHICHI,ZAIWEILAIJIANZHUYELINGYU,BIMJISHUZAICHENGBENKONGZHIZHONGDEYINGYONGHUIGENGJIAGUANGFANSHENZHIHUISUIZHEBIMJISHUDERIQUCHENGSHU,BENTUHUABIMRUANJIANDEWANSHAN,BIMJISHUJIANGHUIQUANMIANYINGYONGYUJIANZHUXINGYE;LINGWAIZAIXIANGMUDETOUZIJUECEJIEDUAN、FANGANYUSHIGONGTUJIEDUANYINGYONGJIYUNWEIJIEDUANYEDOUHUIZHUBUZHANKAIYINGYONG,BIMJIANGHUIZHULIJIANZHUCHANYEHUA、JINGXIHUA、QINGLIANGHUA、ZHINENGHUA,FAHUIXINXIHUAJISHUDEJIAZHI,WEIJIANSHEGONGCHENGXIANGMUSHIXIANZENGZHI,ZHENZHENGSHIXIANJIANZHUYEDEXINXIHULIANZHINENGSHIDAI。

参考文献

1.艾治祥.BIM技术在施工成本控制中的应用分析[D].广州:广州大学,2017.

2.刘占省,赵雪峰.BIM技术与施工项目管理[M].北京:中国电力出版社,2015.

3.张勇,曹以南.BIM技术的协同与应用探索[J].水利水电,2018,5.

4.Jozef Doboš,Carmen Fan,Pavol Knapo,Charence Wong.Applications of Web     3D Technology in Architecture, Engineering and Construction[J].Web3D,201     8,18(06).

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