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苏志欣 | 我国枢纽机场建设的思考与建议
发布日期:2020-10-15 作者:苏志欣 信息来源:中咨研究 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

2017NIAN2YUE,GUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEI、MINHANGJULIANHEYINFAJINGGUOWUYUANPIZHUNDE《QUANGUOMINYONGYUNSHUJICHANGBUJUGUIHUA》,MINGQUE2025NIANWOGUOJIANGXINGCHENGJINGJINJI、ZHANGSANJIAO、YUEGANGAODAWANQU3DASHIJIEJIJICHANGQUN,DAZAOBEIJING、SHANGHAI、GUANGZHOU、CHENGDOU、KUNMING、SHENZHEN、ZHONGQING、XIAN、WULUMUQI、HAERBIN10GE和记国际备用域名SHUNIU,GONGGUHEPEIYUTIANJIN、DALIAN、HANGZHOU、WUHAN、GUIYANG、LANZHOUDENG29GEQUYUSHUNIU。GENJUGUIHUA,WOGUOGONGYOU42GESHUNIUJICHANG。WEILUOSHIGUIHUAYAOQIU,MINHANGJUHUITONGYOUGUANDIFANGJINYIBUQIANGHUAHANGKONGSHUNIUGUIHUAHEJIANSHE,JIAQIANG和记国际备用域名HANGKONGSHUNIUZHANLVEGUIHUADEBIANZHIGONGZUO,WANSHANQUYUSHUNIUJICHANGZONGTIGUIHUA,JIAKUAISHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHE,WEIGOUJIANGUOJIAZONGHEJICHANGTIXIDIANDINGJICHU。BENWENZONGJIE“SHISANWU”YILAIWOGUOSHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHEXIANGMUQIANQIZIXUNPINGGUGUOCHENGZHONGFAXIANDETEDIANJIQIWENTI,TICHUTUIDONGSHUNIUJICHANGGAOZHILIANGFAZHANDEJIANYI,WEISHUNIUJICHANGDEGUIHUAHEJIANSHETIGONGCANKAOYIJU。

一、我国枢纽机场作用日益凸显

1.千万级机场贡献越来越大

JIEZHI2019NIANDI,WOGUOJINGNEIBANZHENGMINYONGHANGKONGJICHANG238GE,NIANLVKETUNTULIANGCHAOGUO1000WANRENCIDEDADAO39GE(QIZHONG37GEWEISHUNIUJICHANG),JIAO2015NIANJINGZENG13GE;WANCHENGLVKETUNTULIANG11.26YIRENCI,ZHANQUANBUJINGNEIJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGDE83.3%,JIAO2015NIANZENGJIA5.5GEBAIFENDIAN。

BIAO1 2019NIANQUANGUOJINGNEIJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGFENBU

数据来源:民航局《2019年民航机场生产统计公报》

*表示含北京南苑机场(2019年9月25日停航)

数据来源:作者整理

图1 2015-2019年千万级机场数量及旅客吞吐量总量

2.和记国际备用域名竞争力不断提升

BEIJING、SHANGHAI、GUANGZHOUJICHANGDE和记国际备用域名SHUNIUDIWEIMINGXIANTIGAO。2019NIAN,BEIJINGSHOUDOU和记国际备用域名JICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGJI2018NIANHOUZAICITUPO1YIRENCI,JUSHIJIEDIER,SHANGHAIPUDONGJICHANGHEGUANGZHOUBAIYUNJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGJUNCHAOGUO7000WANRENCI,FENBIEJUSHIJIEDIBAHEDISHIYI;SHANGHAIPUDONGJICHANGHUOYOUTUNTULIANGJUSHIJIEDISAN。

北京首都和记国际备用域名机场

3.综合交通功能逐步完善

CHUBUTONGJI,MUQIANWOGUOYIYOU25GESHUNIUJICHANGSHIXIANLEYUGUIDAOJIAOTONG(HANTIELU、CHENGSHIGUIDAOJIAOTONG)DEXIANJIE,KAITONGLE36TIAOLVKEGUIDAOJIAOTONG。SHANGHAIHONGQIAO、BEIJINGDAXING、WUHANTIANHE、ZHENGZHOUXINZHENG、CHENGDOUSHUANGLIUDENGJICHANGCHENGWEIZHONGYAODEZONGHEJIAOTONGSHUNIU,ZAIJIANDECHENGDOUXINJICHANG、QINGDAOXINJICHANGYETONGBUYINRUGAOSUTIELU、CHENGSHIGUIDAOJIAOTONG,YISHUNIUJICHANGWEIZHONGXINDEZONGHEJIAOTONGSHUNIUJIAKUAIJIANSHE。

上海虹桥机场2号站——连接上海长途汽车、轨道地铁线处

4.临空经济日趋成熟

JIEZHI2019NIANDI,BEIJINGDAXINGJICHANG、ZHENGZHOU、QINGDAOJIAODONG、ZHONGQING、GUANGZHOU、SHANGHAIHONGQIAO、CHENGDOU、ZHANGSHA、GUIYANG、HANGZHOU、NINGBO、XIAN、SHOUDOUJICHANG、NANJINGDENG14GELINKONGJINGJISHIFANQUHUODEGUOJIAPIFUJIANSHE,JINYIBUJUJIHANGKONGWULIU、KUAIJIANKUAIDI、KUAJINGDIANSHANG、KEJICHUANGXIN、SHANGWUHUIZHAN、ZONGHEBAOZHANGDENGCHANYE,DAZAOGAODUANLINKONGCHANYEJIQUN,FAHUIDONGLIYINQINGZUOYONG,RIYICHENGWEITUIDONGQUYUJINGJIZHUANXINGSHENGJIDEZHONGYAOLILIANG。

表2 国内主要机场临空经济示范区概况

数据来源:作者整理

郑州航空港经济综合实验区

二、当前我国枢纽机场建设呈现的特点及其问题

ZONGTISHANGKAN,WOGUOSHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHEQUDELEYIDINGCHENGXIAO。JIEHE“SHISANWU”YILAISHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHEXIANGMUQIANQIZIXUNPINGGUGONGZUO,SHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHEYECHENGXIANYIXIAJIGETEDIAN:

1.枢纽机场规划目标较大提升

WEISHIYINGFAZHANXUQIU,JIAQIANGJICHANGZHOUBIANDIQUDEGUIHUAKONGZHI,SHUNIUJICHANGLUXUBIANZHIWANCHENGLEXINBANJICHANGZONGTIGUIHUABINGQUDEPIFU,GUIHUAMUBIAOBIXIANZHUANGZHIBIAOJUNYOUJIAODATISHENG,JINQI(2030NIAN)LVKETUNTULIANGSHIXIANZHUANGZHIBIAOYUE2~3BEI,YUANQI(ZHONGDUAN)LVKETUNTULIANGSHIXIANZHUANGZHIBIAOYUE2.5~6.5BEI。

SHUNIUJICHANG“CHENGBEISHU”GUIHUAMUBIAODESHIXIAN,JIANGDUIJICHANGWEILAIKONGGUANZHIHUI、DIMIANZUZHI、RENYUANBAOZHANG、SHESHIPEITAO、YUNYINGGUANLIDENGFANGMIANTICHUXINDEGENGGAOYAOQIU。

BIAO3 BUFENSHUNIUJICHANGZONGTIGUIHUALVKETUNTULIANGGUIHUAMUBIAOYILANBIAO(DANWEI:WANRENCI)

数据来源:作者整理

2.枢纽机场建设工程规模和投资较大

“SHISANWU”YILAI,WEISHIYINGHANGKONGYEWULIANGZENGZHANGXUYAO,TISHENGJICHANGZONGHEBAOZHANGNENGLIHEFUWUSHUIPING,YIJUJICHANGZONGTIGUIHUA,SHUNIUJICHANGFENFENQIDONGXINYILUNJIANSHEGONGCHENG,GONGCHENGJIANSHEGUIMOHETOUZIPUBIANJIAODA,RUCHENGDOUXINJICHANGXINJIAN3TIAOPAODAO、60WANPINGFANGMIDEHANGZHANLOU,JICHANGGONGCHENGTOUZI(XIATONG)YUE512YIYUAN;WULUMUQIJICHANGKUOJIAN2TIAOPAODAO、50WANPINGFANGMIHANGZHANLOU,TOUZIYUE394YIYUAN;HUHEHAOTEXINJICHANGXINJIAN2TIAOPAODAO、26WANPINGFANGMIDEHANGZHANLOU,TOUZIYUE211YIYUAN;XIANJICHANGKUOJIAN3TIAOPAODAO、70WANPINGFANGMIHANGZHANLOU,TOUZIYUE449YIYUAN;LANZHOUJICHANGKUOJIAN2TIAOPAODAO、40WANPINGFANGMIHANGZHANLOU,TOUZIYUE318YIYUANDENG。YU“SHIERWU”LEISIKUOJIANGONGCHENG(ZENGJIANPAODAOHEHANGZHANLOU)XIANGBI,KUOJIANPAODAOSHULIANGDUO,HANGZHANLOUGUIMODA,GONGCHENGTOUZIGAOCHUJIAODUO(“SHIERWU”PINGJUNTOUZIYUE190YIYUAN)。SHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHEGONGCHENGSHEJIDUOPAODAOYUNXING,KONGYUSHIYONGMAODUNTUCHU,JUNMINHANGXIEDIAONANDUDA。GONGCHENGJIANSHEZIJINLAIYUANZHUYAOSHIGUOJIABUZHUZIJIN、DIFANGZHENGFUCAIZHENGZIJIN、JICHANGGONGSIZIYOUZIJINYIJIYINXINGDAIKUAN,YOUYUGUOJIABUZHUZIJINYOUXIAN,DABUFENDEJIANSHEZIJINZHUYAOYIKAODIFANGCAIZHENGHEQIYEZICHOU,ZHEIDUIYUJINGJIXIAXINGYALIJIAOWEITUCHU、JICHUSHESHIJIANSHEMIANLINZIJINPINGJINGDEXIBU、DONGBEIDIQULAISHUO,JIANGKENENGXINZENGDIFANGZHENGFUZHAIWUFENGXIAN,YEHUIZENGJIAJICHANGYUNYINGYALI。

3.枢纽机场“大综合”现象较为突出

WEIJINYIBUTISHENGJICHANGJISHUYUNXIAOLV,TUIJINMINHANGYEYUQUYUJINGJIXIANGHURONGHECUJIN,GUOJIAGULITUIDONGSHUNIUJICHANGYUQITAJIAOTONGFANGSHIDEGAOXIAOXIANJIE,GOUJIANYISHUNIUJICHANGWEIHEXINDEZONGHEJIAOTONGSHUNIU,YINDAOLINKONGJINGJISHIFANQUJIANSHE。MUQIAN,SHUNIUJICHANGFENFENGUIHUAHESHISHIGAOSUTIELUHUOCHENGJITIELU、CHENGSHIGUIDAOJIAOTONGYINRUGONGCHENG,DAZAOZONGHEJIAOTONGSHUNIU;ZAIJICHANGZHOUBIANJINYIBUJIJUGELEILINKONGCHANYE,JIANSHELINKONGJINGJIQU。SUIZHEDUOZHONGJIAOTONGFANGSHIJIERUHEGELEICHANYEJUJI,JIAOTONGLIU、RENLIU、WULIUGENGJIAPINFAN,SHUNIUJICHANGYANRANCHENGWEIYIGE“DAZONGHETI”,ZIYUANCHENGZAINENGLIJINYIBUJIAJU,ZHEIJIANGZENGJIAJICHANGYUNYINGGUANLIFUDAN,RUOGUIHUAXIANJIEBUHELI,YEHUIJIJICHANGJIANSHEFAZHANDAILAIYUESHU。MUQIAN,BUFENZONGHEJIAOTONGSHUNIUCUNZAIKUAXINGYEXIEDIAONANDUDA、JISHUBIAOZHUNBUTONGYI、JIANSHEBUTONGBUWENTI,JIANSHEJINDUZHIHOU;BUFENLINKONGJINGJIQUGUIHUAJIZHANLEJICHANGFAZHANYONGDI,JUNZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGZHIYUELESHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHEFAZHAN。

三、推动我国枢纽机场高质量发展建议

1.处理好发展需求与建设能力的关系

YAOCHULIHAOSHUNIUJICHANGFAZHANXUQIUYUJIANSHENENGLIDEGUANXI,ZHELIFANGFANHUAJIEZHONGDAFENGXIAN,BAOCHISHUNIUJICHANGJIANKANGWENDINGFAZHAN。

YISHIJIANCHI“TONGYIGUIHUA、FENBUSHISHI”DEYUANZE,ZAISHUNIUJICHANGZHANLVEGUIHUAHEZONGTIGUIHUAKUANGJIAXIA,JIEHEJICHANGYUNXINGSHIJI,ZHIDINGKEXUE、YOUXUDEFENQIJIANSHEFANGAN。

ERSHITONGCHOUFAZHANXUQIU、JUNMINRONGHE、ZIYUANCHENGZAI、ZIJINCHOUCUODENGYINSU,JIAQIANGXIANGMULUNZHENG,ZUOHAOKONGDIXIEDIAOHEZHAIWUFENGXIANPINGGU,YANGELUOSHIXIANGMUJIANSHETIAOJIAN,QUEBAOXIANGMUSHUNLISHISHI。

SANSHIZHUZHONGXIANGMUCAIWUXIAOYIHEKECHIXUFAZHAN,QIESHILUOSHIXIANGMUJIANSHEZIJIN,JIJITUOKUANRONGZIQUDAO,TIGAOYUNYINGGUANLISHUIPING,WEIJICHANGJIANSHEJIHOUXUYUNYINGTIGONGBAOZHANG。

2.规范引导枢纽机场融合发展

YISHIXIEDIAOTUIJINZONGHEJIAOTONGFAZHAN。JIEHESHUNIUJICHANGYUNXINGSHIJI,SHENRUYANJIUJICHANGJISHUYUNGONGNENGHEXUQIU,KEXUEGUIHUAJISHUYUNXITONG,TONGCHOUGUIHUAXIANLUJINZHANHEDIFANGCAILIDENGYINSU,HELIANPAIXIANGMUJIANSHE;JIANQUANZONGHEJIAOTONGXIEDIAOJIZHI,JIAQIANGGEZHONGJIAOTONGYUNSHUFANGSHIDEDUIJIERONGHE,ZUOHAOZONGHEJIAOTONGSHUNIUTONGYIGUIHUA、SHEJI、JIANSHE、YUNYING,CHONGFENFAHUIJICHANGZONGHEJIAOTONGSHUNIUZUOYONG。

ERSHIYINDAOYOUXUFAZHANLINKONGJINGJI。JIANCHISHUNIUJICHANGFAZHANYOUXIAN,YILINKONGZHIXIANGHEGAODUANJIJUWEIDAOXIANG,JIEHEQUYUCHANYETESE,ZUOJINGZUOXILINKONGCHANYEFAZHANLINGYU,ZUOHAOLINKONGCHANYEBUJUYUJICHANGFAZHANXIANGXIEDIAO,CUJINLINKONGJINGJISHIFANQUCHAYIXINGFAZHAN。

SANSHIJISHIZONGJIESHIFANGONGCHENGJINGYAN。TUIJINBEIJINGDAXINGJICHANG、CHENGDOUXINJICHANG、QINGDAOXINJICHANGDENGZONGHEKEYUNSHUNIUSHIFANGONGCHENGYIJIZHENGZHOU、BEIJINGDAXINGJICHANGDENGLINKONGJINGJISHIFANQUJIANSHE,JISHIZONGJIESHIFANGONGCHENGZAIGUIHUA、SHEJI、JIANSHEHEYUNYINGDENGHUANJIEZHONGKETUIGUANG、KEFUZHIDEXIANJINJINGYAN,GENGHAODIZHIDAOSHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHE。

3.完善支持和保障措施

YAOWANSHANZHICHIHEBAOZHANGCUOSHI,SHIYINGSHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHEFAZHANXUQIU。

YISHIANZHAOJUNMINRONGHEYAOQIU,JIAKUAITUIJINKONGYUGUANLITIZHIGAIGE,JIAQIANGKONGGUANSHESHIJIANSHE,GAIJINYUNXINGSHOUDUAN,TISHENGKONGGUANBAOZHANGNENGLI。

ERSHIJIAKUAIFEIXING、JIWU、KONGGUAN、YUNYINGDENGZHUANYEXINGRENCAIDUIWUJIANSHE,JIADAGAODUANRENCAIPEIYANGHEYINJINLIDU,ZHELITIGAOSHUNIUJICHANGGUIHUA、SHEJI、JIANSHE、YUNYINGQUANGUOCHENGBAOZHANGNENGLI。

SANSHIJIAQIANGJICHANGZONGTIGUIHUA、LINKONGJINGJIQUGUIHUAYUDIFANGGUOTUKONGJIANGUIHUA、ZONGHEJIAOTONGGUIHUADENGDEXIANJIE,XIEDIAOHAOTUDI、HUANBAODENGYINSUYUSHUNIUJICHANGFAZHANDEGUANXI,LUOSHIJICHANGJIANSHEYONGDI,ZUOHAOSHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHU。

注: 原文载于《中国投资》2020年5月号,本次发表作了较大改动。文中图片来源于网络。




 
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